March 28, 1969
A Joint Communiqué about West German Minister Gerhard Stoltenberger's Visit to Brazil
This Joint Communiqué provides details about conversations between West German Minister, Doctor Gerhard Stoltenberger, and members of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and their plans for the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology. The framework of the agreement included topics of research such as nuclear energy, space and aeronautical research, oceanography, scientific documentation and electronic data processing.
April 02, 1969
Telegram to the President of Brazil on the Draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany
A Telegram/Cable sent by the Minister of External Relations, José de Magalhães, to the President of the Republic of Brazil, regarding the draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany.
May 02, 1969
Brief Study of Draft of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany
This document is an evaluation of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany. It provides the guidelines of the Brazilian Nuclear Policy, which stimulated the continuation of programs, contacts and agreements in the nuclear field. Moreover, the document reveals that the Brazilian government understood that it needed the cooperation of foreign partners, like West Germany, in order to advance its nuclear program.
January 21, 1971
Brazil's National Security Council Approves the Special Agreement between CNPq and the Nuclear Research Center of Jülich
This document was written to the President of Brazil, confirming the Naitonal Security Council's approval of the Special Agreement between CNPq and the Nuclear Rewsearch Center of Jülich.
May 12, 1971
Telegram, Brazilian Embassy in Bonn, 'Relations Brazil/FGR. Visit of Minister Walter Scheel.'
Communiqué from Amb. Paulo Nogueira Batista (Brazilian Embassy, Bonn) to Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs Mario Gibson Barbosa. The communiqué reports the conversation between Batista and the Vice-chancellor of West Germany, Walter Scheel (who became president in 1974), during his visit to Brazil. Recalling the existing agreement between CNEN and Jüllich Center for Nuclear Research, Nogueiras Batista mentioned Brazil’s intention to establish an ambitious international project in the realm of nuclear cooperation, which “visibly impressed the vice chancellor” (p.151). The communiqué ends with Nogueira Batista’s handwritten notes and questions concerning the capacity of the proposed plant and the possibility of a French-Brazilian-German venture.
October 19, 1971
Brief Study of Scientific Agreement on Nuclear Research between CNPq and the Nuclear Research Center of Jülich
A document issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, this special agreement sought to deepen the scientific and technological cooperation between the two nations. This document differed from the Scientific and Technological Agreement previously celebrated in that the CNPq-KFA agreement was more specific, as it indicated which areas would be explored. It was signed directly with a center of nuclear research, clearly demonstrating Brazilian interest in the nuclear field.
April 11, 1972
Cable from the President of Brazil of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy to the Secretary-General Confirming the Arrival of Dr. Klaus Scharmer of the Jülich Research Center
This document was sent to the Secretary-General, confirming the arrival of Dr. Klaus Scharmer to Brazil. Dr. Klaus Scharmer was the head of the International Bureau of the Nuclear Center of Jülich, and his visit was part of an exchange program between Brazilian institutions and universities and the research center. Dr. Scharmer came to Brazil to discuss the implementation of the Special Agreement between CNPq and KFA, in addition to an analogous CNEN-KFA agreement. Dr. Scharmer toured nuclear research institutions in Belo Horizonte, Sãp Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
June 05, 1972
Brief Study of the Agreement Permitting the Entrance of West German Nuclear Ships into Brazilian Waters and their Permanence in Brazilian Ports
This document deals with the issue of the entrance of German nuclear-propelled ships into Brazilian waters, as well as their stay in Brazilian ports. This is yet another agreement in the wake of the Scientific and Technological Agreement of 1969. It states the Brazilian interest in the development of nuclear technology and its commercial marine uses.
May 10, 1973
Agenda, Brazilian Delegation to West Germany, 'Program of the Meeting on Nuclear Cooperation'
Schedule of the Brazilian delegation during a visit to various cities in West Germany (Bonn, Erlangen, Frankfurt) in February 1973. This mission is regarded as a critical step towards the establishment of the nuclear agreement with West Germany in 1975. The hand-written notes indicate the appointments and the sites to be visited by technical officials, engineers Carlos Syllus, who later became Director for Technology at Nuclebras, David Neiva Simon, who had been involved in the negotiations of the first Angra power plant with Westinghouse, and Ambassador Nogueira Batista, who would later become president of Nuclebras.
August 13, 1974
Memorandum, Information for the President of Brazil, No. 055/74 from the National Security Council
Outline of the government of Brazil’s decision to acquire all phases of the cycle of production of nuclear fuel through cooperation with a foreign government, in this case the Federal Republic of Germany. Reference is made to the need to develop uranium enrichment technology in accordance with the 1967 nuclear policy, which had not yet been implemented.
February 25, 1977
Memorandum from Brazilian Foreign Minister Silveira to President Geisel, US Threats and Promises and Brazilian Responses
This memo outlines “possible American approaches” and “possible Brazilian reactions” as the US attempts to compel the Brazilians and Germans to cease their nuclear cooperation.
March 21, 1977
Brazilian Embassy Cable, Brazilian Ambassador to Bonn Reports on Soviet Pressure on West Germany
The Brazilian Ambassador in Bonn reports on a Der Spiegel article, which states, “After the United States, it is now the Soviet Union’s turn to exert pressure for Bonn to revise its controversial atomic agreement with Brazil.” The article shows US-Soviet solidarity against Brazil and Germany’s cooperation in developing nuclear weapons.
February 23, 1978
Memorandum, Foreign Minister Azeredo da Silveira, Information for the President of Brazil, 'Nuclear Issues. Meeting at 13/02/78. Alvorada Palace.'
Report of a meeting between President Geisel and his top nuclear advisors on the eve of President Carter’s visit to Brazil and Geisel’s trip to West Germany. Issues discussed include: the delay in the construction of the Angra I, II and III nuclear plants; the unreliability of the US and Urenco (mainly due to Dutch reticence) as suppliers of nuclear fuel; the rising costs of the German deal; and the dissatisfaction with the jet nozzle enrichment technology and the possibility of renegotiating with Germany for the purchase of ultracentrifugation technology. Both Foreign Minister Silveira and President Geisel admitted the possibility of acceding to the NPT if necessary to get the technology.
June 18, 1979
Notice No. 135/79 from the General Secretariat of the Brazilian National Security Council
In 1978 the National Security Council identified the most important shortcoming of nuclear cooperation with Germany: the non-transfer of technology for the production of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The lack of this crucial phase for the production of nuclear fuel led Brazil to decide to develop this method by national means, in view of the unwillingness of France and Great Britain to export said technology without a full scope of safeguards. The document reports how the government decided to create an autonomous nuclear project with regard to cooperation with Germany and free from the international safeguards regime. Coordinated by CNEN and implemented by the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), this project represented the first phase of the “parallel” nuclear program whose objective was the autonomous mastery of the nuclear cycle.
September 30, 1981
Memorandum of Conversation, Brazilian Foreign Minister Guerreiro and US Secretary of State Haig
Brazilian Foreign Minister Guerreiro and American Secretary of State Alexander Haig meet in Washington D.C. Haig illustrates a shift in American nuclear policy from that of the Carter administration to a more lenient approach.