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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 01, 1960

    Italian Communist Angelo Franza, Memorandum of Conversation with Cuban Communist Antonio Nunez Jimenez and note by PCI Official Giuliano Pajetta

    A memorandum of a conversation between PCI official Giuliano Pajetta and Antonio Nunez Jimenez, Director of the Cuban National Institute for Agrarian Reform [INRA] and member of the Cuban PC (Popular Socialist Party [PSP]). They discuss the various problems relating to the internal and external politics in Cuba and the solidarity that the PCI can provide to the Cuban liberation movement.

  • February 26, 1960

    MAE-MD Joint Report on Question of Disarmament

    Report of the Joint MAE-MD working group on the issue of disarmament. The report is centered on the 10 military milestones of the Italian position (reduction of budgets for the defense, of actuals and armaments, balanced disarmament, weapons and nuclear secrets, cessation of experiments nuclear, special status zones, special defensive needs of Italy, abolition of US bases, Atlantic defense). It contains comments and suggestions related to different disengagement modalities in Central Europe. Included is a letter by CSMD A. Rossi to MD Andreotti with observations on the MAE report.

  • July 11, 1960

    Letter from MAE to GA on Polaris Issue

    Note for MD Andreotti concerning deployment of Polaris on Italian ships

  • May 02, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) for Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Document announcing the official abandonment of the policy of massive retaliation as a "deterrence" strategy. Opinion of the Italian senior minister of defense regarding the need for a more flexible NATO defense strategy in order to respond to any type of act of aggression is also presented.

  • October 01, 1962

    Roberto Ducci, 'I capintesta' [The Big Bosses] (excerpts)

    In the early pages of the chapter, Ducci describes how by 22 October 1962, he had just arrived in Brussels as member of a delegation which included the top echelons of Italian foreign policy: Foreign Minister Attilio Piccioni, Undersecretary Carlo Russo, Secretary General of the Ministry Attilio Cattani, and a number of other key dignitaries, including himself, who at the time was at the head of the Italian delegation which negotiated the possible accession of the United Kingdom to the European Economic Community. They had all gone to Brussels for a week of meetings between the Six members of the EEC, and were engaged in a preparatory meeting for the work ahead, when the news spread that the situation between the US and Cuba was deteriorating and that President Kennedy was about to give an important speech.

  • November 26, 1962

    Letter from Italian Communist Journalist Carmine de Lipsis to Senior Italian Communist Giancarlo Pajetta on Interview with Che Guevara

    A letter from Italian Communist Journalist Carmine de Lipsis to Senior Italian Communist Giancarlo Pajetta regarding an interview with Che Guevara. De Lipsis also includes detailed reading notes on this meeting to augment the rest of the letter.

  • January 01, 1963

    Note by SMD on Denuclearization of the Mediterranean

    Note by gen. Aldo Rossi against Soviet proposal for denuclearization of the Mediterranean, which would deny Italy a nuclear deterrent through NATO.

  • August 13, 1963

    Italian Communist Ugo Pecchioli, Report on Trip to Cuba

    Italian Communist, Ugo Pecchioli, reports on his trip to Cuba. He discusses: the relative international situation of Cuba; meetings with Fidel Castro; the profound divergence that exists (in his opinion) between the Chinese Communist Party and the great majority of the other communist parties; the development of the struggle for democracy and socialism in different Latin American countries; and Italian and Cuban communist party relations.

  • October 23, 1963

    Letter from Ducci to Quaroni on Nuclear War

    Letter from ambassador R. Ducci on prospective consequences for Europe of controlled response strategy in light of Herman Kahn's analysis in the paper Escalation and its strategic context

  • September 29, 1964

    MAE cables on Von Hassel Declaration

    Cables between MAE secretary general Cattani and Italian embassy in Bonn on declaration by defense minister Von Hassel.

  • November 21, 1964

    Telespresso by Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Ministry of Defense, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force. British proposals'

    The document consists of the transcript of what has been told to the Italian Embassy in London (Cattani), November 20th about British remarks with regard to Atlantic Nuclear Force project. The document describes the features of the project, reports the disadvantages that could derive from the proposal and the British doubts about that. In addition, the document underlines the goals and the features that - from the Italian point of view - the MLF project could and should have.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Defense Planning'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to the Defense Planning, Italy claims (together with Germany) that it is absolutely indispensable to have available a well-balanced both conventional and nuclear arsenal, to preserve the SACEUR's credibility, on a political level too.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'

    The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'Special Committee. Working group for the planning'

    The note outlines the Italian policy with regards to the activities of the Working group on planning, of which Italy is a part together with the US, the UK, Germany and Turkey.

  • February 20, 1966

    Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Planning Working Group of the "Special Committee" (Washington, 17th-18th February, 1966), with a letter from Andrea Cagiati'

    Cagiati sends Andreotti a report about the meeting in Washington, which concluded Giulio Andreotti's period as Minister of Defense. Cagiati thanks Andreotti for his work, that made sure that "in this period the relationship between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense has been strong and efficient like never before". The report describes the meeting (the first meeting of this working group) and the viewpoints of the participants, with special attention payed to the US nuclear policy. The document describes also the fields which require further investigations by the Working Group. There are Cagiati's personal reflections too.

  • October 06, 1967

    General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Summary Report of the 2nd Nuclear Planning Group meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Ankara, 28-29 September 1967)'

    The document reports the evolution of the meeting. Italy was there represented by the new Minister of Defense Tremelloni, the Chief of Staff Aloia, the diplomat Alessandrini (RICA) and others. Topics discussed: possible use of ADM; possible use of tactical nuclear weapons; ABM; Italian participation in military nuclear planning; information about the nuclear weapons deployed in NATO countries. Aloia believes that the discussion was fruitful, keeping in mind the complexity of the nuclear issues, that have just recently been able to count on permanent bodies appropriate to deal with them at a political level. France's negative behavior caused a postponement of the discussion about many military-political topics in the last years.

  • 1969

    Report, 'Legitimacy, situation and prospects of the Atlantic Alliance'

    Describes the current state of the Atlantic Alliance and the most critical points of debate. The report ends maintaining that NATO has now overcome the most difficult crisis of its existence.

  • July 14, 1969

    Note from Ambassador Caruso for Ambassador Vinci

    The Italian delegation to the UN decides to vote in favor of the assignment of the Chinese seat to the PRC.

  • September 30, 1969

    Letter no. 428 from Franco Maria Malfatti to Aldo Moro

    Malfatti reports his observations of the Chinese ambassador, who displayed a strong position against the Soviet Union and Taiwan.

  • September 30, 1969

    Letter no. 429 from Franco Maria Malfatti to Aldo Moro

    Malfatti reports on his impression of the prospects of negotiations with the Chinese in regards to establishing diplomatic relations.