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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • November 15, 1974

    Letter, Kenneth Kaunda to J.B. Vorster

  • January 30, 1976

    Resolution 385 of the United Nations Security Council on Namibia

    UN Security Council resolution condemning South Africa's occupation of and presence in Namibia, and demanding, among other things, that South Africa end apartheid in Namibia and release its Namibian political prisoners.

  • September 29, 1976

    Discussion between SWAPO with Dr Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, in New York

    Dr. Kissinger expresses his proposal for a conference on Namibia to be attended by SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), Turnhalle members, and South Africa. The Conference concerned the ongoing struggle for independence by Namibian guerrillas from South African rule. Kissinger pledged US support to SWAPO as the leading force in Namibia, but Namibian delegates responded that they would not attend the conference unless South Africa met all preconditions including the withdrawal of troops from Namibian territory.

  • June 18, 1977

    SWAPO Press Statement, Delivered by D.T. Tjongarero at an Impromptu Press Conference in Windhoek

    Press statement by SWAPO accusing the West of stalling the UN resolution for Namibian independence, and of working with South Africa to exploit Namibia. Questions whether some aspects of the resolution have been ignored or discussed without consultation of Namibia.

  • July 27, 1978

    UN Security Council Resolution 432 on Walvis Bay and Namibia

    Resolution of the UN Security Council, supporting reintegration of Walvis Bay into Namibia's territory.

  • September 29, 1978

    UN Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia

    UN Security Council Resolution reiterating its view of South Africa's presence in Namibia as illegal, and establishing a United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) to support the UN Special Representative and help ensure free and fair elections in Namibia. Voids all actions and elections taken by South Africa's administration in Namibia.

  • October 19, 1978

    Statement by South African Prime Minister P.W. Botha Regarding Talks with the Western Five (excerpts)

    Excerpts of a statement by P.W. Botha discussing South Africa's concern with the independence and security of its neighbors. Emphasizes South Africa's wish and ability to provide Namibia with continued money and infrastructure and warns against the threat that a Marxist Namibia would pose to the free world.

  • January 10, 1981

    Pre-implementation Meeting, Mr. Ahtisaari Answers to Questions, Version 1

    Answers to several questions, including the matters of returning refugees, demilitarization, and fair elections in Namibia.

  • January 10, 1981

    Pre-implementation Meeting, Mr. Ahtisaari Answers to Questions, Version 2

    Record of a pre-implementation meeting in Geneva between delegations from SWAPO and the South African administration of Namibia. SWAPO emphasizes its readiness to set dates for a cease fire and for arrival of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG). The South African delegation argues that, by recognizing only SWAPO, and not other parties in Namibia, the UN had proven itself impartial and refused to set definite dates.

  • January 19, 1981

    UN Security Council Report Concerning the Implementations of Resolutions 435 (1978) and 439 (1978) Concerning the Question of Namibia

    Report by the UN Secretary-General on the Geneva meeting between SWAPO and South African delegations. Notes that the meeting did not achieve its goals of designating a date for a cease-fire or for the implementation of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG). Points out that the meeting did succeed in informing parties of the UN's plans for implementation and as a demonstration of good faith.

  • April 15, 1981

    Memorandum of Conversation Between R. F. Botha and Chester Crocker of the US Department of State

    Leaked memorandum of conversation between "Pik" Botha and Chester Crocker. Botha questions how much South Africa can trust the United States to support the former in Namibia negotiations. He also raises concerns about the effects that a SWAPO victory in Namibia could have. Crocker reassures him on both subjects, based on the strength and resistance to pressure of the Reagan administration.

  • May 19, 1981

    Letter from South African Minister of Foreign Affairs R.F. Botha to US Secretary of State A.M. Haig Jr.

    Letter from R. F. "Pik" Botha to Alexander Haig, noting that the United States and South Africa have parallel goals in Namibia: the establishment of an independent state without a Marxist-socialist government. Lays out a list of qualities that the South African government wants to see in the new Namibian state.

  • 1982

    Principles for a Constitution for an Independent Namibia

    Declaration of the principles that will be incorporated into the new Namibian constitution.

  • February 04, 1982

    Cuba-Angola Declaration

    A defense of Cuban military intervention in Angola, citing the advance of South African troops in Angolan territory as justifiable cause. Accuses the United States and South Africa of inciting bands of Namibian militia to upset the Cuban presence in Angola. Argues that the presence of Cuban troops in Angola is an agreement between two sovereign governments.

  • March 06, 1984

    Message of R.F. Botha to the Governments of the United States, Angola, and Zambia

    Message from R. F. "Pik" Botha declaring that, despite SWAPO incursions into Namibia, South African forces have not retaliated, in order to give the maximum amount of time for Angola to make good on its promise to withdraw its forces. South Africa will, however, maintain a military presence in Namibia while he threat is still there.

  • March 21, 1984

    Letter from C.A. Crocker to R.F. Botha

    Chester Crocker writes to R. F. "Pik" Botha about the importance of not responding to the recent Cuban/Angolan communique. Crocker warns against giving the Cubans an excuse to keep their troops stationed in Namibia, and points out that it is likely a distraction for concessions the Cubans and Angolans are about to make to South Africa and the United States.

  • May 05, 1984

    Telegram to D. Steward From Auret

    Description of a meeting between Angolan and South African delegations, the former being led by Venancio De Moura. Details discussion of troop withdrawal from Namibia, focusing on an "outburst" by De Moura.

  • June 15, 1988

    Report from A.A. Jaquet to SRA, 'Current State of Negotiations between South Africa and Angola'

    Description of the state of Angolan-South African affairs. Discusses recent and upcoming negotiations between Angolan and South African delegations, noting specifically the difficulties of getting the Angolans to accept proposals and to decide on a venue in which to have the talks.

  • June 24, 1988

    Meeting between the Delegations of Angola, Cuba and the United States, 'Conversaciones RPA-Cuba EEUU-RSA'

    Meeting between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia.

  • October, 1988

    Meetings between Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States, 'Reuniones para lograr una solución al conflicto de la región del suroeste de Africa' #4-8

    Meetings between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia: Geneva, 2-5 August 1988; Brazzaville, 24-26 August 1988; Brazzaville 7-9 September 1988; Brazzaville 26-29 September 1988; New York, 6-9 October 1988.