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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November, 1963

    Ion Gheorghe Maurer, 'The Unshakeable Foundation of the Unity of the International Communist Movement' (excerpts)

    Prime Minister Ion Gheorghe Maurer describes Romania's new policies and approach to relations with China and the Soviet Union at a time when Romania was increasingly attempting to distance itself from the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union's military control. Toward this end, Mauer proclaims a policy of military disengagement and disarmament, declaring that mediation and negotiation are the only legitimate way of resolving international tensions.

  • June 05, 1964

    Conversations between Romanian Leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and Chinese Ambassador Liu Fang, Referring to Bilateral Relations and the Soviet-Chinese Ideological Conflict Snagov, 5 June 1964 (excerpts)

    In excerpts from their conversation, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, First Secretary of the Romanian Workers Party and Liu Fang, Chinese Ambassador to Romania, discuss the increasing tension between both their countries and the Soviet Union. Gheorghiu-Dej also explains his objections to the attempted admission of Mongolia to the Warsaw Pact. Romanian military leader Emil Bodnăraş is also present.

  • May 29, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2103-203, To Deputy Minister of National Defense of Poland and Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces

    This brief cipher message informs the Polish military leadership that the joint military exercise to be conducted in Poland and Czechoslovakia must be postponed from June to July.

  • May 29, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2102-2037, To Minister of National Defense of Poland Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    Sent by the Soviet Union, this cipher message notifies Polish forces that a joint strategic operational military exercise will be conducted in Poland and Czechoslovakia in the coming month. Soviet Marshal Yakubovsky advises Polish Division General Jaruzelski to mobilize the appropriate forces and resources for the purposes of the exercise.

  • June 01, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2142-GOU/2/85657, To the Minister of National Defense of Poland Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    This cipher message provides the leadership of Polish forces with specific information regarding the implementation of the military exercise to be held in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

  • June 03, 1968

    Report on Meeting of Consultative Political Committee of the Warsaw Pact

    The report details changes that had been made to the Unified Command structure over the last two years (since 1966) and the effects that they would have on Romania and its relationship with the Warsaw Pact.

  • July 25, 1968

    Cipher Telegraph 2765-311/8, To Minister of National Defense of the Poland, Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    This Soviet cipher message provides Polish military forces with specific instructions regarding the forthcoming joint military exercise in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The given details pertain primarily to Polish troop movements.

  • July 27, 1968

    Warsaw Pact Military Planning: To Division General Cde. Chocha

    Soviet General-Lieutenant Kozmin requests information from Polish General Chocha so that Soviet troops may pass through Polish territory.

  • July 27, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2784-323/8, To Minister of National Defense of Poland, Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    This Soviet cipher message gives orders to the Polish military leadership regarding the joint military exercise in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

  • July 27, 1968

    Directive of the Ministry of Defense for Exercise ‘OVERCAST SUMMER-68’

    Directive describes how the military exercise Overcast Summer-68 ["Pochmurne Lato"] will transpire on August 1 on the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968 and states the logistics of the exercise. Information includes what groups will be used, their commanding generals, equipment, and first aid materials. The document also details how communications between all parties involved will function, as well as signal words and numbers that are to be used under various situations. Directive is signed by Minister of Defense and General of Divisions, Wojciech Jaruzelski.

  • July 28, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2791-337/8, To the Commanding General of the Silesian Military District, copy to the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces

    The Soviet exercise control staff provides the Polish forces from the Silesian region with directions regarding the forthcoming military exercise. The Polish troops are ordered to maintain secrecy so as to avoid enemy intelligence gathering.

  • August 09, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2961-2330, To the commanding general of the 2nd Army of the Polish Armed Forces, copy to the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces, Division General Cde. B. Chocha.

    The Soviet exercise control staff provides the Polish forces with information regarding the upcoming joint military exercise.

  • August 20, 1968

    Report No. 10 from Generals Pavlovsky and Kovalov to Brigadier General Florian Siwicki

    General Pavlovsky writes to the Commander of the Polish Second Army, Brigadier General Florian Siwicki. He lists preliminary steps in Operation Danube where the troops enter from Poland into Czechoslovakia.

  • August 20, 1968

    On the Troops’ State of Readiness

    Report given out by the Polish Army General Staff regarding the state of Polish combat troops for the intervention in Czechoslovakia. States that the armies are in full readiness and are ready to move toward Czechoslovakia at any time. An overview of the area in Czechoslovakia that they are invading is also given at length.

  • August 22, 1968

    Report on the Polish Second Army, August 22, 1968 at 7:00 AM

    Report states that Polish Second Army divisions are in good spirits and believe their mission to intervene in Czechoslovakia is a just cause. Report states that despite the good will of Polish soldiers, they face hostility from the Czech army and citizens alike. Report then states what actions should be undertaken.

  • August 24, 1968

    Report on the Polish Second Army division taking part in Operation Danube

    Report states there are no problems with the morale and political state of soldiers and officers of the Second Army, though the soldiers have faced open hostility from Czech citizens. Overall relations between Czech Army and Polish divisions are negative.

  • August 25, 1968

    Report from Political Board of Polish Second Army

    Report on the use of propaganda materials and how they have been distributed in Czech cities and villages. It also lists several incidents of hostility expressed by Czech soldiers/citizens towards Warsaw Pact soldiers.

  • August 26, 1968

    Report from the Second Army's Political Department at 19:00 hours

    Document continues reporting on relations between Czech citizens and Warsaw Pact armies as well as the state of Polish Second Army. Report describes propaganda dissemination in villages and cities as well as how unfriendly relations between Czech and Polish soldiers remain.

  • August 26, 1968

    Report from Polish Second Army’s Political Department at 7:35 hours

    Report praises soldiers of the Polish Second Army for their political maturity and high spirits but says that relations between Czech citizens and soldiers of Second Army are not amicable. On August 25th, the political branch of Second Army led a propaganda operation designed for Czech society and soldiers.

  • August 30, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 3238-643, To the Commanding General of the 2nd Army of the Polish Armed Forces, Brigade General Cde. F. Siwicki

    This text of this telegram is virtually identical to that of telegram 3234-8/220, also sent 30 August 1968.