March 20, 1979
Record of Conversation between L.I. Brezhnev and N.M. Taraki, 20 March 1979
After the more general meeting of the same day, Brezhnev and Taraki meet to further discuss the situation in Afghanistan. Brezhnev advises Taraki to widen the base of the government's support among the people through political and economic means. Taraki reaffirms his current position, which includes open borders with Iran and Pakistan as well as the policy of persecution within Afghanistan.
May 10, 1981
Report of Military Leaders to D. F. Ustinov
This document reveals reluctance on the part of the Soviets to maintain military involvement in Afghanistan, and difficulty in shaping a newly forming Afghan government. The PDPA's efforts to establish a democratic government, Soviets analysts revealed, were hampered by tribalism and strong ethnic disagreements regarding the scope and shape of their government.
KGB Active Measures in Southwest Asia in 1980-82
Materials provided by former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin to CWIHP, following the publication of the Working Paper No. 40, "The KGB in Afghanistan." As with all Mitrokhin’s notes, his compilation on Soviet “active measures” in South and Southwest Asia is based on other smuggled-out notes and was prepared especially for CWIHP. Please read the Notes on Sources for information on the nature and limitations of these documents.