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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 19, 1954

    Minutes of Chairman Mao Zedong’s First Meeting with Nehru

    Mao Zedong and Nehru discuss Sino-Indian relations, the political situation in Asia, and the role of the United States in world politics.

  • October 23, 1954

    Minutes of Chairman Mao Zedong’s Second Meeting with Nehru

    Mao and Nehru have an extensive discussion about global affairs, the legacy of World War II, and the likelihood of another world war.

  • April 01, 1955

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'The Asian-African Conference'

    The note covers the background, achievements, and influence of the Asian-African Conference. It states that the Conference was initiated because Asian and African countries gained their independence after the Second World War and wanted to tackle the imperialism and colonialism. After the Conference, there was an increase of anti-imperialism sentiment among the Asian and African countries.

  • April 19, 1955

    Main Speech by Premier Zhou Enlai, Head of the Delegation of the People's Republic of China, Distributed at the Plenary Session of the Asian-African Conference

    Zhou Enlai calls for increased cooperation between the countries of Asia and Africa at the Bandung Conference.

  • April 25, 1955

    Cable from Zhou Enlai, 'Specific Refutations against the American Disruption of Influence of the Afro-Asian Conference'

    Zhou Enlai's instructions to Wen Tian on countering the "Soviet neocolonialism" and "various forms of colonialism" argument from pro-American countries.

  • April 30, 1955

    Zhou Enlai’s Report to the CCP Central Committee and Mao Zedong Regarding the Cultural Cooperation Issue

    Zhou Enlai reports on the various attitudes of the Bandung Conference participants towards Afro-Asian cultural cooperation.

  • June 29, 1956

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1956, No. 24 (Overall Issue No. 50)

    In this issue, Zhou Enlai congratulates Gamal Abdel Nasser on the final withdrawal of foreign troops from Egypt. Several sections cover factory safety and various administrative concerns, such as dividing Inner Mongolia into different banners.

  • October 19, 1956

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy

    Premier Zhou and Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, debrief about the Bandung Conference. They discuss their views regarding international tensions in Asia and the rest of world. Suhrawardy praises Zhou on his attitude during the conference which gave Pakistan more clarity about China's position on international issues. Suhrawardy also says that he felt Zhou's sincerity and enthusiasm in getting along with other countries. Zhou says that he understands why other countries fear China and explains that China's goal at the moment is industrialization, not colonial expansion. Zhou tells Suhrawardy that the current generation of Chinese political leaders will make sure that future generations will not commit war and aggression. Suhrawardy disagrees with Zhou that current generation can control future political leaders decisions. Zhou calls for countries that are skeptical of China to engage with China to see for themselves China's intentions.

  • November 08, 1957

    CDS Report No. 62 from Choi Duk Shin to the President (Syngman Rhee)

    Choi Duk Shin announces the denial of South Korea's admittance into the Colombo Plan, offers his opinions on the threat of Red China's interference in Asia, and reports on major events in South Vietnam.

  • November 18, 1957

    Excerpt from the Unedited Translation of Mao Zedong’s Speech at the Moscow Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties

  • November 21, 1957

    Letter No. 99 from the President (Syngman Rhee) to Minister Duk Shin Choi

    President Rhee briefly responds to Choi's previous reported opinions on Korean unification and the threat of Red China and Japan.

  • February 21, 1959

    Mao Zedong, 'Africa's Task is to Struggle Against Imperialism'

    On February 21, 1959, in a meeting with representatives of the Union of the Populations of Cameroon and of the youths of Guinea, Kenya and Madagascar, Mao Zedong argued that Africa's task is to struggle against imperialism and that the people of various countries should assist and support African people in the struggle for liberation.

  • May 07, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Guests from Africa

    Mao describes the history of Western imperialism in China and discusses ways that people around the world are opposing imperialism. He pledges to support the anti-imperialist struggle in Africa and calls for unity. (Note: in this 1968 edition, the names of a Cuban national hero and his younger brother [presumably Fidel and Raul Castro] are redacted.)

  • August 09, 1961

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Morocco, 'A Goan Discusses Goa’s Issues with Us'

    Report on a conversation with a spokesman for the Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies' permanent secretariat in Morocco, named Aquino de Braganca, who is a native of Goa, India, and a member of the Goan People's Party. The conversation covers two main issues: First, the current political situation in Angola, and second, the status of Goa's struggle to oppose Portugal and gain independence.

  • August 12, 1961

    Telegram from Chinese Foreign Ministry to Embassy in India, 'Please Investigate and Report on Goan People's Party General Secretary's Situation and Make Recommendation Re: Visit to China'

    The Goan People's Party general secretary Kakodkar wishes to visit China and explain the Goan People's Party's struggle to oppose Portugal and win independence.

  • December 23, 1961

    Cable, Chinese Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Morocco, 'Generally Express Support for the Struggle against Portugal with Braganca '

    The Foreign Ministry orders the embassy to refrain from initiating contact with a representative of the Goan People's Party as it could cause diplomatic problems with India for China to be in direct contact with the Goan liberation movement.

  • May 03, 1962

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with a Government and Economic Delegation and Women's Delegation from Guinea

    Mao and visitors from Guinea discuss various economic and diplomatic issues that have emerged since their country became independent from France in October 1958.

  • September 29, 1962

    Record of Conversation from Chairman Mao and Comrade Jiang Qing’s Reception of Mme. Hartini Sukarno

    Mao Zedong and Mme. Hartini Sukarno discuss developments in Indonesia, including the role of Chinese military assistance in putting down rebellions, as well as relations among the Afro-Asian nations.

  • September, 1963

    Mao Zedong, 'There Are Two Intermediate Zones'

    Mao Zedong begins to espouse his theory of the “Two Intermediate Zones,” with Asia, Africa, and Latin America constituting the first, and Europe and North America constituting the second.

  • October 16, 1963

    Record of Conversation from Premier Zhou’s Reception of the Tanganyikan Cultural Delegation

    Zhou and Lawi Nangwanda Sijaona discuss the Sino-Indian border conflict and African regionalism.