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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • April 21, 1956

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with a Delegation of Journalists from Yugoslavia (Excerpt)

    In a meeting with journalists from Yugoslavia, Mao compares the atomic bomb to other weapons used throughout history and argues that the atomic bomb would kill fewer people. Finally, he notes that conflicts between good and bad people will always exist.

  • November 18, 1957

    [Mao Zedong's] Remarks at Meeting for Representatives of Communist and Workers' Parties in Moscow

    Mao discusses ways that socialism is overwhelming capitalism and describes the reactionaries of the world as "paper tigers." He urges his fellow socialists to take their enemies seriously and to wipe them out one by one.

  • May 17, 1958

    Remarks at the Second Meeting of the Eighth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party

    Mao contrasts the unity that exists between socialist countries with the troubles of capitalist and imperialist countries like the United States.

  • September 02, 1958

    Mao Zedong, 'Fight for National Independence and Do Away with Blind Worship of the West'

    Brazilian journalists Mariudim and Mme. Dotere speak with Mao about the prospects of stemming imperialism in Latin America, and countering Western influence. The reestablishment of diplomatic relations between China and Latin American countries, particularly Brazil, was also discussed.

  • November 25, 1958

    [Mao Zedong's] Comments on Two Reports about International Issues

    First, Mao asserts that the Western world will eventually splinter. Second, he notes that proletariat is gaining new allies every day.

  • December 01, 1958

    [Mao Zedong] on [How and Why] All Imperialists and Reactionaries Are Paper Tigers

    Mao argues that the Chinese communists can regard imperialists and reactionaries as "dead, paper, and tofu tigers" because they have become backward and unrevolutionary. But on the other hand, since tigers can eat people, China still needs to think strategically and engage in class struggle.

  • February 21, 1959

    Mao Zedong, 'Africa's Task is to Struggle Against Imperialism'

    On February 21, 1959, in a meeting with representatives of the Union of the Populations of Cameroon and of the youths of Guinea, Kenya and Madagascar, Mao Zedong argued that Africa's task is to struggle against imperialism and that the people of various countries should assist and support African people in the struggle for liberation.

  • May 09, 1959

    Minutes of Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Delegations and Envoys from Eleven Fraternal Countries

    In a meeting with dignitaries from 11 other socialist countries, Mao metaphorically describes the imperialists and reactionaries of the world as ghosts.

  • May 15, 1959

    Record of Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Chilean Politicians (Excerpt)

    Mao discusses the value of teaching and his personal experiences as an instructor.

  • March 22, 1960

    Mao Zedong, 'On the Anti-Chinese Problem'

    Mao asserts that only a small percentage of people in the world—imperialists, reactionaries, and revisionists—truly oppose communist China.

  • May 07, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Guests from Africa

    Mao describes the history of Western imperialism in China and discusses ways that people around the world are opposing imperialism. He pledges to support the anti-imperialist struggle in Africa and calls for unity. (Note: in this 1968 edition, the names of a Cuban national hero and his younger brother [presumably Fidel and Raul Castro] are redacted.)

  • May 08, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Guests from Latin America

    Mao discusses the economic development of China and Latin America as well as ongoing anti-imperialist struggles around the world with a visiting delegation from Latin America. He expresses support for their efforts and calls for unity.

  • December 20, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with an Ecuadorian Cultural Delegation and Cuban Women's Delegation

    Visitors from Ecuador and Cuba note that China has a long literary heritage, which should be used to advance socialism. They express surprise at the fact that Chinese artists continue to copy Western art and music. Mao agrees that more people should study their own heritage and culture.

  • April 28, 1961

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Guests from Asia and Africa

    Mao extends deep sympathy and support to people struggling against imperialism in Arab and African countries. This report was originally published in the People's Daily on April 29, 1961.

  • July 26, 1963

    [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Cultural, Trade Union, Youth, and Other Delegations from Cuba on June 3rd

    Mao and the visitors from Cuba discuss sending art troupes, books, and films to each other's countries. Later, their conversation shifts to the United States, North Korea, and other topics.

  • August 08, 1963

    Statement [from Mao Zedong] Appealing the People of the World to Unite against the Racial Discrimination of American Imperialism [and to] Support Black Americans' Opposition of Racism

    At the request of Robert F. Williams, a former NAACP leader who fled to Cuba, Mao condemns racism against black Americans in the United States. He discusses several notable events in the American civil rights movement, from the Little Rock Crisis of 1957 to the then-upcoming March on Washington, and calls on "enlightened people of all races around the world" to support the struggle of black Americans.

  • November 15, 1963

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with the Albanian Prosecutor General and Others

    Mao meets with the Albanian Prosecutor General, Aranit Çela, and Sofikli Papavasili, an inspector from the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labor, during their first visit to China. Among other topics, they discuss the need to wage class struggle and to reform counter-revolutionaries, such as the last Emperor of China, through education. The Chinese Prosecutor General, Zhang Dingcheng, and his deputy, Huang Huoxing, are also present. (Note that the given name of the Chinese Prosecutor General Zhang Dingcheng was redacted due to his being denouced by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution.)

  • February 09, 1964

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of New Zealand, [Victor] Wilcox, and His Wife

    In a meeting with Victor Wilcox, Mao asserts that divisions are inevitable everywhere. He emphasizes that everything, even the Second Sino-Japanese War, has two sides.

  • May 15, 1964

    Record of the Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Audience with the Albanian Women’s Delegation and Albanian Film Workers

    Mao and Vito Kapo discuss Sino-Albanian relations in the context of the anti-revisionist struggle against the Soviet Union.

  • June 18, 1964

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Zanzibar Expert Mahmood Ali and His Wife

    Mao and Mahmood Ali discuss their countries' ongoing struggles against imperialism and revisionism. Mao also discusses his theory of the "two intermediate zones."