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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • August 01, 1953

    Indira Gandhi’s Unofficial Visit to USSR in July 1953

    L.D. Kislova recounts, in a diary entry, a conversation with Indira Gandhi, daughter of Prime Minister Nehru, on the night before her departure from Leningrad. Gandhi discusses the difficulties Nehru faces in his rule of India, arguing that nobody could replace Nehru and continue the democratic reforms he has put in place.

  • October 22, 1954

    Key Points of the Conversation between Song Qingling and Nehru

    Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Song Qingling, former Chinese nationalist and second wife of Sun Yat-Sen, discuss Taiwan, Australia's position on China's entrance to the United Nations, and the impact of governmental censorship on Chinese foreign policy.

  • January 08, 1955

    Cable from Peng Di, 'Regarding the Situation of the Bogor Conference'

    Peng Di reports on discussions at the Bogor Conference, including the status of the five principles of peaceful coexistence and inter-asian economic cooperation.

  • March 16, 1955

    Record of 'A Chat with K. M. Panikkar at the Quai D’Orsay'

    A representative of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports on his conversation with former Indian Ambassador K.M. Panikkar. Panikkar avowed that the Indian government firmly believes that Germany will eventually reunify, while it increasingly fears that Germany will unify by means of war, which would threaten India's own future development. Panikkar suggests that Nehru may discuss this issue in his upcoming meeting with Khrushchev.

  • March 29, 1955

    Report from Zhang Hanfu to Zhou Enlai

    A note to Zhou Enlai covering the following issues: draft agreement between China and Indonesia regarding dual nationality; the issues of Chinese students kept in the US by US government and the Americans kept by the Chinese government; Zhou’s itinerary to Rangoon.

  • January 23, 1956

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK V. I. Ivanov for 23 January 1956

    Ivanov informs Kim Il Sung about Khrushchev’s and Bulganin’s visit to India, Burma, and Afghanistan.

  • March 01, 1956

    Message from Buenos Aires to Ministry of External Affairs, External Publicity Division, 'Future of Antarctica - India’s Reported Move Criticized'

    Newspapers in Chile published editorials which contend that Chile’s rights in Antarctic are undisputed and do not admit of any doubt, be it juridical or political

  • February 16, 1957

    Premier Zhou Enlai Receives Pakistani Ambassador Ahmed, and Accepts Letter From Pakistani Premier Suhrawady Explaining the Kashmir Issue

    Zhou Enlai and Pakistani Ambassador Ahmed discuss the Indian-Pakistani dispute over Kashmir, the likelihood of a military conflict in the region, and the possibility that such a conflict could be used by the United States to its advantage.

  • October 02, 1959

    Record of Conversation of N. S. Khrushchev with CC CCP Chairman Mao Zedong, Deputy Chairma Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Lin Biao, Politburo Members Peng Zhen and Chen Yi, and Secretariat Member Wang Jiaxiang

    Record of conversation between Nikita Khrushchev and top Chinese Communist Party leaders. Khrushchev blames the Chinese for the border conflict with India and for allowing the Dalai Lama to escape from Tibet. The two sides argue over how the Chinese should have handled these problems, with Mao accusing the Soviet Union of being "time-servers."

  • December 18, 1959

    Draft Report, 'On the Trip of the Soviet Party-Governmental Delegation to the PRC,' by M. Suslov to CC CPSU Presidium for Presentation to a Forthcoming CC CPSU Plenum (excerpt)

    Draft report by M. Suslov describing the visit of a Soviet delegation to the People’s Republic of China, mainly focusing on the deterioration of relations between India and China.

  • June, 1960

    From the Diary of S. V. Chervonenko, Memorandum of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CC CCP, Deng Xiaoping, 17 May 1960

    Deng Xiaoping discuss Khrushchev's speech regarding the American U-2 spy plane shot down by the Soviet Union in May 1960 and the Eisenhower administration's attempted cover up. He also discussed Zhou Enlai's visit to India and continued tensions between India and China.

  • June 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • January 01, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Overview of India’s Foreign Relations in 1961'

    The Chinese Embassy in India reported on Indian foreign relations for the year 1961. In the report, the following issues are mentioned: Indian dependence on the United States, capitalism, opposition to China and communism, imperialism, and Indian-Pakisti relations.

  • September 05, 1962

    Pakistani Ambassador Raza Pays Formal Visit to Chinese Premier Zhou

    Zhou Enlai and Pakistani Ambassador Raza discuss Chinese and Pakistani relations with India, especially Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's positions on Kashmir, Sino-Indian border disputes, and Sino-Indian interactions on Taiwan and Tibet.

  • October 27, 1962

    The Editorial Department of Renmin Ribao [People's Daily], 'More on Nehru's Philosophy in the Light of the Sino-Indian Boundary Question'

  • November 24, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Vietnam, 'Chairman Ho Discusses the Following Two Situations'

    Ho Chi Minh evaluates Jawaharlal Nehru and the Sino-Indian border dispute.

  • April, 1963

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'The Soviet Union’s Stance on the Sino-Indian Boundary Question and Soviet-Indian Relations'

    An extensive report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry on the Soviet Union's policies vis-a-vis the Sino-Indian Border War.

  • December 20, 1963

    Record of Premier Zhou Enlai's Calling on President Nasser

    Zhou and Nasser discuss domestic conditions inside of Egypt, the Sino-Indian border war, and the possibilities for a nuclear weapons free zone in Africa and the Middle East.

  • May 14, 1964

    Research Memorandum INR-16 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Indian Nuclear Weapons Development'

    An intelligence report that the fuel core of the Canadian-Indian Reactor (CIR) at Trombay was being changed every six months raised questions about India’s nuclear objectives: a six-month period was quite short for “normal research reactor operations,” but it was the optimum time for using the CIR’s spent fuel for producing weapons grade plutonium. According to INR, India had taken the “first deliberate decision in the series leading to a nuclear weapon,” which was to have “available, on demand, unsafeguarded weapons-grade plutonium or, at the least, the capacity to produce it.”