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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March 22, 1961

    Message by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP), 'American attitude toward NATO - German opinions'

    Letter expressing Germany’s opinion that the defense of Europe is impossible without using nuclear weapons as an intimidation tactic and horror at the United States’ suggestion that Europe can defend itself with conventional weapons alone. Defense of Germany should be NATO’s top priority because if Germany falls, the rest of Europe falls. The letter also references NATO’s difficulty in developing a cohesive strategy because each country is too concerned with protecting its own territories and assets.

  • May 15, 1961

    Telegram by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP) to Minister of Defense, 'Opinion sharing between Brosio-Acheson on NATO nuclear weaponry '

    This document is related to Brosi's discussion with Acherson on NATO nuclear weaponry and strategy. Brosio underlines how the American nuclear strategy is rejected by European countries. Most of them are skeptical and take distance from Americans' willingness to use nuclear weapon against their enemies. In this sense, Acherson as representative of the American government, is ready to discuss the topic at a multilateral level.

  • January 15, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on NATO and Nuclear Forces

    Note by ambassador to the UK Pietro Quaroni on NATO US leadership, nuclear balance, european nuclear deterrent, conventional armaments and bilateral relations between European countries and the US.

  • May 24, 1972

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff, 'Political-military considerations with regards to the ministerial meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee' (DPC), Bruxelles

    The document discusses the weak state of European defence in light of the threat posed by Warsaw Pact that continues to increase its capabilities. It underlines the minimal participation and marginal role of Italy in the alliance, demanding a more meaningful financial and military contribution.

  • July 06, 1972

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report about the meeting of NATO Defence Planning Committee at the ministerial session (Bruxelles, May 24th 1972)

    Summary of the DPC meeting in Brussels where the alliance members discussed potential responses to the increasing and modernizing capabilities of the Warsaw Pact. Although US Secretary of Defense Laird highlights US commitment to its allies, Italy and other NATO members should not resort to "optimism of convenience", but fully commit to common defense.

  • January 24, 1973

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the Ministerial Meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee (Bruxelles, 6th December 1972), sent by Minister of Defense Tanassi to Prime Minister Andreotti

    Summary of the Defense Planning Committee discussions about the Action plan 1973-78, the problem of standardization, and the common infrastructures program of NATO. It is concluded that there is no realistic alternative to US forces in Europe, and that signs of positive change in Soviet intentions should not be trusted.

  • May 01, 1973

    Report by Diplomatic Advisor of the Prime Minister Andrea Cagiati, 'Atlantic Declaration'

    Cagiati analyzes Kissinger's speech from April 23 in light of conversations between Nixon and Andreotti. The US efforts to emphasize the importance of transatlantic relations and Europe's role in advancing democratic ideas could create an opportunity to relaunch the process of European integration.

  • January 31, 1974

    Letter by Permanent Representative to NATO Catalano di Melilli to Minister of Foreign Affairs Aldo Moro

    Catalano di Melilli, Italy's permanent representative to NATO, writes to Foreign minister Aldo Moro about the existing confusion in the realm of international relations. He expresses concern over the process of European integration, and underlines the importance of maintaining good relations to the United States.

  • June 28, 1974

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs (signed by De Rin), 'Atlantic Council held in Ottawa, 18th-19th June 1974'

    Reflections on the current state of transatlantic relations and Kissinger's foreign policy from Italian perspective. The meeting in Ottawa revealed that the US-Europe relationship is not one of harmony and concord, but that Kissinger sees himself as a peace builder in East-West relations, viewing them in strictly bilateral terms.

  • July 04, 1974

    Letter by the Italian Ambassador in London, Raimondo Manzini, to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Aldo Moro

    Italian Ambassador to London, Raimondo Manzini, writes to Foreign minister Moro in the aftermath of the 1974 Ottawa Declaration. He discusses the British interest in reviving the Special Relationship with the US and its effects on European politics, and suggests that through intensified dialogue and cooperation, an Anglo-Italian solidarity could function as a counterweight to the close Franco-German relations.

  • May 30, 1978

    Memorandum by Minister of Defense Attilio Ruffini for the Prime Minister Andreotti, 'Washington Summit - NATO's program for long-term defense (LTDP)'

    Minister of Defense Attilio Ruffini's notes to Prime Minister Andreotti regarding NATO's proposal for a long-term defense program. Italy faces pressure to increase its economic contribution, but for the time being cannot make a binding commitment.

  • October 15, 1980

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Vincenzo Tornetta to Minister of Foreign Affairs Colombo: Atlantic Council - Consultations about security in view of the CSCE meeting to be held in Madrid"

    Report from the Italian permanent representative to NATO, Tornetta, from the CSCE meeting in Madrid discusses the French proposal for a Conference on Disarmament (CDE) in Europe, and the negative impact of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan on the international climate, even giving rise to disagreement among NATO members.

  • December 05, 1983

    Telegram by Ambassador Rinaldo Petrignani, 'Prospects of resuming the FNI negotiations'

    Italian Ambassador to Washington, Rinaldo Petrignani, volunteers his views on the interruption of the INF negotiations, and their possible relaunch. He states that Italy's firm and coherent position vis-à-vis the missile debate has improved its standing internationally, and highlights the crucial importance of maintaining strong transatlantic relations.

  • December 08, 1983

    Note by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Ministerial session of the Atlantic Council - State of the Alliance'

    These notes from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs analyze the current state of the alliance. The document offers an overview of recent positive and negative developments , focusing on the issue of restarting the INF negotiations.

  • March 01, 1984

    Telegram by the Ambassador to the United States Petrignani to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Prospects of resuming the FNI negotiations'

    Ambassador Petrignani reports his conversation with Vice Secretary of State Burt following Kissinger's interview in Time where he talks about NATO's crisis and need for burden sharing reform. Burt distances the current administration from Kissinger's views, stating instead that euro-american relations are "in good health", and there is no need for drastic measures.

  • May 29, 1984

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Problems related to security and disarmament'

    This document describes the problems related to security and disarmament in East-West relations. The Soviet intransigence combined with lack of consensus among the NATO states makes reopening nuclear disarmament negotiations difficult.

  • July 24, 1984

    Telegram by Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Permanent Representative to NATO, 'Survey about the non-military cooperation among allies in the light of Article Two'

    Proposal drafted by the Italian Foreign Ministry for a new Declaration of Atlantic Relations focused on the non-military aspects of the Alliance. It suggests elaborating Article 2 to improve inter-ally cooperation in non-military sectors.

  • November 15, 1984

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'European cooperation in the field of armaments'

    This analysis focuses on the state of European security cooperation, discussing both common defense and coordination of military production. It criticizes the lack of unity, complexity of the current configuration, and its negative impact on transatlantic relations.

  • December 13, 1984

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Reactivation of UEO (Ideas and factual data)'

    A brief document calling for the revival of the WEU as a means of creating a deeper and more unified European defense and security cooperation.

  • 1985

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'UEO - Coordination of the reactions of member countries to the US invitation to take part in the SDI (and attached: Interim Report of the SDI Working Group)'

    The document consists of a report from WEU working group on SDI (in French), and a summary of the WEU member states' positions, and their common efforts to coordinate a unified reaction to the American invitation to participate in SDI.