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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 24, 1956

    Record of a Conversation between Soviet Embassy Counsellor S. Filatov and DPRK Vice Premier Pak Ui-wan, 24 January 1956

    Pak reports on the recent KWP CC Presidium decision, “The Further Strengthening of the Fight Against Reactionary Bourgeois Ideology in Literature and Art,” which was directed at the alleged hostile factional activity of Soviet Koreans. Pak says that the persecution of Soviet Koreans is ungrounded, as they do not pose a threat to the Party, and that in fact, favoring members of the local “faction” over members of other backgrounds may undermine the Party’s integrity.

  • February 25, 1956

    Khrushchev's Secret Speech, 'On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences,' Delivered at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    In a secret speech before a closed plenum of the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s cult of the personality. In addition, he revealed that Stalin had rounded up thousands of people and sent them into a huge system of political work camps (Gulags). This revelation was met with astonishment by many present for the speech, but helped to break the power that Stalin still held over the country.

  • March 21, 1956

    Reception, Conversation Between Soviet Foreign Minister K.E. Voroshilov and Chinese Deputy Chairman Zhu De, 20 March 1956

    Record of a conversation between Soviet Foreign Minister Voroshilov and Chinese Deputy Chairman Zhu De. They discuss Zhu De's travels in the Soviet Union and his impressions of the 20th Party Congress, at which Khrushchev had given his famous "Secret Speech" denoucing Stalin.

  • April 05, 1956

    From the Journal of Ambassador P. F. Yudin, Record of Conversation with Mao Zedong, 31 March 1956

    Soviet Ambassador Yudin discusses the 20th Congress of the CPSU with Mao, including Khrushchev's "secret speech" denouncing Stalin and his cult of personality. Mao had already seen a copy and discusses mistakes in Stalin's policy towards China at length.

  • April 23, 1956

    Record of a Speech delivered by Kim Il Sung at the Third Congress of the Korean Workers' Party

    Kim Il Sung draws on Khrushchev's speech at the 20th Congress of the CPSU in his own speech at the Third Congress of the Korean Workers' Party, and speaks to the successes of the Three-Year Plan and discusses the implementation of a similar Five-Year Plan.

  • April 30, 1956

    Record of the Third Congress of the Korean Workers' Party by L.I. Brezhnev

    Brezhnev reports on the Third Congress of the Korean Workers' Party and concludes that there is a misunderstanding of the 20th Congress of the CPSU in North Korea. Brezhnev also mentions a meeting that took place, at Kim Il Sung's request, with the CPSU delegation that was present at the Third Congress.

  • September 04, 1956

    Memorandum of Conversation with the Ambassador of the Peoples Republic of China to the DPRK Qiao Xiaoguang

    Ambassador Ivanov in the DPRK speaks with PRC Ambassador on the four Koreans who spoke against Kim Il Sung that are being held at the Chinese border. Ivanov states that the Soviet Union is against criticizing Kim Il Sung.

  • September 23, 1956

    Telegram from A. Mikoyan to the CPSU Central Committee

    Peng Dehuai tells Mikoyan that the Chinese Communist Party fully supports the denunciation of Stalin's personality cult, partly because after the Chinese revolution, Stalin insisted that the new government take an inclusive approach to opposition parties. Peng also discusses Mao Zedong's recent meeting with the Egyptian ambassador.

  • June 24, 1957

    Minutes of the Meeting of the CPSU CC Plenum on the State of Soviet Foreign Policy

    The Soviet leadership discusses the state of Soviet foreign policy after the Hungarian crisis and Khrushchev’s visit to the US. Molotov criticizes Khrushchev for recklessness in foreign policy direction. Soviet inroads in the Middle East and the Third World are analyzed. The effects of the crises in Eastern Europe are placed in the context of the struggle against US imperialism.

  • September 15, 1959

    Mikihail Zimyanin's Background Report for Khrushchev on China (Excerpt)

    Mikhail Zimyanin, head of the Soviet Foreign Ministry’s Far Eastern department, reports to Khrushchev on the “new stage” in Sino-Soviet relations after the victory of the people’s revolution in China; China and the Soviet Union now share the common goal of developing socialist societies in their respective countries.

  • November 20, 1960

    Record of Conversation between Polish Delegation (Gomułka et al.) and Chinese Communist Politburo Member Liu Shaoqi, Moscow

    Liu Shaoqi, Peng Zhen, and Gomułka discuss problems within the communist bloc since 1956.

  • November 29, 1960

    Record of Conversation between Polish Delegation (Gomułka et al.) and Chinese Communist Politburo Member Liu Shaoqi, Moscow

    Liu Shaoqi and Gomułka review the state of the communist bloc, discussing the Sino-Soviet intervention in North Korea in 1956 and the position of Albania.

  • November 27, 1961

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Notice regarding the Appropriate Response to the Czechoslovak Premier’s Attack on Our Party'

    The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs weighs how to respond to Czechoslovak criticisms of Mao Zedong's cult of personality following the 20th Congress of the CPSU.

  • May 16, 1962

    Speech of N. S. Khrushchev at a friendly dinner in Yevksinograd (Varna), 16 May 1962

    Speaking in Bulgaria, Khrushchev discusses the cult of personality of Stalin and the great purges that occurred under Stalin's leadership. He contrasts Lenin and Stalin and the role of the communist party under each. He addresses the history and current situation of the Communist Party of Albania and the Soviet split with Albania and Yugoslavia.