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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 21, 1959

    Mao Zedong, 'Africa's Task is to Struggle Against Imperialism'

    On February 21, 1959, in a meeting with representatives of the Union of the Populations of Cameroon and of the youths of Guinea, Kenya and Madagascar, Mao Zedong argued that Africa's task is to struggle against imperialism and that the people of various countries should assist and support African people in the struggle for liberation.

  • January 15, 1964

    Cable from Kong, Huang, and Tong, 'Situation of the Ghana Visit'

    A summary of Zhou Enlai's conversation with Kwame Nkrumah that covered Sino-Ghanian relations, China's status at the UN, liberation movements in Africa, Sino-Indian relations, the Non-Aligned Movement, nuclear weapons free zones in Africa, and the Congo crisis, among other subjects.

  • December 02, 1964

    Stasi Report on Meetings with the KGB, 30 November-1 December 1964

    Meetings between KGB Chairman Semichastny and East German Minister for State Security Mielke. Topics of discussion include Lyndon B. Johnson's recent election in the United States, Khrushchev's ouster from the Kremlin, Sino-Soviet relation, and Khrushchev's son-in-law Alexei Adzhubei.

  • December 26, 1964

    Record of Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Reception of the Algerian Militia Delegation

    Mao and Mahmoud Guenez discuss the Algerian revolution, the lessons of the Chinese experience, and developments in the Congo (Léopoldville).

  • January 25, 1965

    Record of Premier Zhou’s Fourth Conversation with President Touré

  • February, 1965

    Excerpt from Che Guevara's 'Pasajes de la Guerra Revolucionaria (Congo)'

    Excerpt from Che Guevara's "Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria (Congo)" on his meeting with African liberation movement leaders in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania describing the inability to convince them to fight for a greater cause than the freedom of individual republics.

  • September 29, 1976

    Discussion between SWAPO with Dr Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, in New York

    Dr. Kissinger expresses his proposal for a conference on Namibia to be attended by SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), Turnhalle members, and South Africa. The Conference concerned the ongoing struggle for independence by Namibian guerrillas from South African rule. Kissinger pledged US support to SWAPO as the leading force in Namibia, but Namibian delegates responded that they would not attend the conference unless South Africa met all preconditions including the withdrawal of troops from Namibian territory.

  • April 03, 1977

    Fidel Castro's 1977 Southern Africa Tour: A Report to Honecker (excerpt)

    The following excerpt--from a discussion on 3 April 1977 at the House of the SED Central Committee in East Berlin--contains Castro's impressions of the situations in several southern African countries, (e.g., Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique, People's Republic of the Congo), and several guerrilla or liberation groups in the region, such as the African National Congress (ANC), then struggling for power in South Africa, and two groups fighting to rule Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African Political Union (ZAPU). Also included are Castro's assessments of individual political leaders, remarks about coordination with Moscow, and an over-all conclusion that Africa was the place to inflict a major blow against world imperialism.

  • February 16, 1978

    Report, South African Department of Foreign Affairs, 'Transit Visit of Reverand Ndabaningi Sithole'

    Reverand Sithole's upcoming trip to London to discuss Britain's continued support for the PF in Rhodesia.

  • May 24, 1979

    Memorandum of Conversation between Minister-counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Havana M. Manasov and Cuban Communist Party CC member Raul Valdes Vivo, 7 May 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Minister-counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Havana M. Manasov and Cuban Communist Party CC member Raul Valdes Vivo where Vivo discusses plans for Soviet-Cuban cooperation on the Zimbabwe situation

  • July 29, 1979

    Minutes of Todor Zhivkov – Robert Mugabe Conversation, Sofia

    Robert Mugabe - leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and future president of Zimbabwe - visits Bulgarian and meets with Todor Zhivkov. Mugabe discusses the progress of the conflict in Zimbabwe and requests Bulgarian military support for his forces. Zhivkov expresses concern about the division of the Zimbabwean forces into two separate and competing military groups and advises him to unite with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU).

  • September 23, 1980

    Bulgarian Relations with the Communist Party of South Africa and the African National Congress, Sofia (extract)

    A list of positive interactions between the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) and the African National Congress (ANC). Including visits by ANC representatives to Bulgaria and economic assistance provided by the BCP.

  • May 15, 1981

    Notes on Meeting between South African Minister of Foreign Affairs R. F. Botha and US President Reagan

    South African Minister of Foreign Affairs "Pik" Botha and President Reagan meet in Washington, DC. South African Ambassador Sole, the note taker, interprets Reagan's friendly opening comments as "the inference clearly being that he had no illusions about democratic rule in Africa." They discuss the situation in Namibia and Angola, and their shared opposition to Soviet and communist influence in the region. Botha also asks Reagan to help South Africa's souring relations with France regarding nuclear cooperation. Botha states that "South Africa was not preparing or intending to explode a nuclear device, but[...] could not afford publicly to surrender this option."

  • June 11, 1981

    Letter from US President Reagan to South African Prime Minister P.W. Botha

    Reagan writes to South African Prime Minister R. F. "Pik" Botha regarding his meetings with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Information, Pieter W. Botha (no relation). Reagan expresses hope that relations between the two countries will be more cooperative in the future, and states that although the Nambia issue has complicated that relationship, it "can also be an opportunity to help stem the growth of Soviet influence in the region."

  • May 13, 1983

    Memorandum of Conversation between Fidel Castro and Oliver Tambo

    Oliver Tambo was the president of the ANC.

  • October 22, 1983

    South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) President Sam Nujoma's visit to Bulgaria, October 1983

    Notes on a visit by the South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) to Bulgaria in October 1983. The delegation included Namibian politician Sam Nujoma, who discussed the struggle for Namibian independence from South Africa.

  • March 25, 1986

    Memorandum of Conversation between Fidel Castro and Oliver Tambo

    Oliver Tambo was the president of the ANC.

  • July, 1988

    Current Relations Between Bulgaria and the South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO)

    An overview of the development of relations between Bulgaria and SWAPO from the late 1970s through the late 1980s. Several visits to Bulgaria from SWAPO (and future Namibian) President Sam Nujoma are mentioned, as are visits from SWAPO's Richard Kapuela, Toivo Ya Toivo, Festus Naholo, and David Merero. Bulgarian Chariman of the State Council, Todor Zhivkov, conducted the meetings with Nujoma. Also mentioned are Bulgarian offers for SWAPO members to come to Bulgaria for education, vacation and medical treatment.