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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 08, 1974

    DECREE of the Secretariat of the CC CPSU - An Appeal to the Leaders of the PDPA Groups 'Parcham' and 'Khalq'

    This document illustrates Moscow's fear regarding the instability and infighting among Afghan political parties, and its corresponding consequences for Soviet involvement in the Middle East.

  • June 21, 1974

    CC CPSU Information for the Leaders of the Progressive Afghan Political Organizations 'Parcham' and 'Khalq' Concerning the Results of the Visit of Mohammed Daud to the USSR

    This document discusses how infighting among Afghan political parties threatened to de-stabilize the country. This report comes after a visit by Mohammed Daud to the USSR.

  • June 26, 1974

    Decree of the CPSU CC - Information for the Leaders of the Progressive Afghan Political Organizations 'Parcham' and 'Khalq' Concerning the Results of the Visit of Mohammed Daud to the USSR

    This document provides information for the leaders of the progressive Afghan political parties; and results of the CC elections.

  • September 12, 1978

    Minutes from Conversation between Babrak Karmal and the Head of the Diplomatic Protocol Tucek

    A summarized conversation between Babrak Karmal and the head of Diplomatic protocol regarding Karmal's request for political asylum in Czechoslovakia, following then end of his ambassadorship.

  • March 18, 1979

    Telephone Conversation between Soviet Premier Alexei N. Kosygin and Afghan Premier Nur Mohammed Taraki

    This conversation reveals the difficulty that the Afghan political leadership faced in establishing a government--despite substantial military aid and advice from the Soviet Union.

  • March 20, 1979

    Record of Conversation between L.I. Brezhnev and N.M. Taraki, 20 March 1979

    After the more general meeting of the same day, Brezhnev and Taraki meet to further discuss the situation in Afghanistan. Brezhnev advises Taraki to widen the base of the government's support among the people through political and economic means. Taraki reaffirms his current position, which includes open borders with Iran and Pakistan as well as the policy of persecution within Afghanistan.

  • March 28, 1979

    Soviet Communication to the Hungarian Leadership on the Situation in Afghanistan

    This document discusses the strained political situation in Afghanistan in terms of counter-revolutionaries attempting to overthrow the government. Such revolutions in part came from reactionary Muslim regions, some of which are replete with Shiites who may have been influence by the Chinese government.

  • June 28, 1979

    Draft instructions to the Soviet Ambassador in Kabul with Appeal of the CC CPSU Politburo to the CC PDPA Politburo

    Members of the CC CPSU summarize the political instability in Afghanistan, pointing to collective leadership in government and to the military as stabilizing the political situation.

  • December 27, 1979

    Message to Soviet Ambassadors on the Invasion of Afghanistan, Attachment to CPSU Politburo Decree #177

    The violent actions by the DRA, led by H. Amin, to de-stabilize the Afghan government, dissolving the gains made in the April Revolution, causes the Soviet Union to place military detachments in Afghanistan.

  • December 29, 1979

    CPSU CC Memo with Excerpt from Protocol #177/220, 29 December 1979

    This memo includes the response of Brezhnev to President Carter's address concerning Afghanistan and US-Soviet relations.

  • September 09, 1980

    Measures Against a Discussion of a Draft Resolution Containing Points of an Anti-Soviet and Anti-Afghan Orientation at the 67th Conference of the Interparliamentary Union

    This CC CPSU document discusses the anti-Soviet and anti-Afghan movements that interfered with the establishment of an Afghani parliament.

  • May 10, 1981

    Report of Military Leaders to D. F. Ustinov

    This document reveals reluctance on the part of the Soviets to maintain military involvement in Afghanistan, and difficulty in shaping a newly forming Afghan government. The PDPA's efforts to establish a democratic government, Soviets analysts revealed, were hampered by tribalism and strong ethnic disagreements regarding the scope and shape of their government.

  • June 04, 1981

    Transcript of CPSU CC Politburo Meeting (excerpt), 4 June 1981

    The Politburo discusses the internal economic situation within the Soviet Union, the situation in Afghanistan (in particular the group "Parcham" and Karmal), relations with the US, and the treatment of Jews in the USSR.

  • January 26, 1983

    Excerpts from several reports about the situation in the PDPA compiled by the KGB

    An assessment of the military-political situation in Afghanistan. Intra-party disagreements posed a threat to the stability of the government, and its long-term viability.

  • March 14, 1985

    Memorandum of Conversation Between M. S. Gorbachev and General Secretary of the CC NDPA [National Democratic Party of Afghanistan], Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of DRA [Democratic Republic of Afghanistan] B. Karmal.

    Gorbachev and Chairman Karmal discuss the future of Afghanistan with less intervention from the Soviets.

  • May 22, 1987

    Notes from Politburo Meeting, 21-22 May 1987 (Excerpt)

    Gorbachev and his advisors discuss building a coalition government in Afghanistan before the withdrawal of Soviet troops and also the lack of acceptance of the Soviet-backed People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).

  • July 20, 1987

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan Cde. Najib (Excerpt)

    Najibullah and Gorbachev discuss the implementation of a policy of "national reconciliation" and political settlement in preparation for Soviet troops withdrawal from Afghanistan.

  • November 03, 1987

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan Najibullah

    Najibullah and Gorbachev discuss a recent all-party conference of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and plans to hold a coalition meeting (Loya Jirga) at which a new Afghan constitution will be adopted and a new president elected.

  • March 29, 1988

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with the General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party [PCI] Alessandro Natta

    Gorbachev explains to Natta about issues with the Soviet withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, including disagreements with the United States on the plans for the coalition government.

  • November, 1988

    Memorandum by Soviet First Deputy Foreign Minister Yuli Vorontsov, General Valentin Varennikov, V. Zaitsev, V. Yegorov, November 1988 (Excerpt)

    Report on the degrading political and military situation in Afghanistan.