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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 09, 1962

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Beck), Report on Deputy Foreign Minister Péter Mód’s talks with political leaders in Cuba

    Ambassador János Beck reports on Foreign Minister Péter Mód’s visit to Cuba, and with whom he met. The report is divided among four different official meetings: Foreign Minister Raul Roa, Prime Minister Fidel Castro, Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, and the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations (ORI). Beck summarizes each meeting separately. Topics include Cuba’s expectation of a US invasion and the US’s current clandestine activities, Organization of American States (OAS) and its use as a political tool in US-Latin American relations, Sino-Soviet relations, socialist unity and the importance of Soviet trade, Cuba’s perceived Soviet military advantage over the US, and the Communist Party’s development/popularity in Cuba. Many of these topics appear in various meetings outlined in the report.

  • January 17, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 17 January 1962

    Jelen reports to Krajewski on the Punta del Este, based on conversations with Blas Roca [Caldeiro], [Raul] Roa [Garcia], and [Carlos] Lechuga, about the situation in various Latin American countries: Mexico, Bolivia, Columbia, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Cuba.

  • January 25, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 25 January 1962

    Jelen reports that the information he is getting from the Punta [del Este] is fragmentary. He also reports that Fidel decisively rejected the concept of “Finlandization” of Cuba.

  • February 05, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 5 February 1962

    Jelen continues his reporting on the eighth meeting of consultation of foreign ministers in Punta del Este by discussing diplomatic relations between Central and South American countries and their opinions on the American sanctions against Cuba.

  • February 28, 1962

    From the Journal of S.M. Kudryavtsev, 'Record of a Conversation with Fidel Castro Ruz, Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba, 10 February 1962'

    Kudryavtsev describes a meeting with Fidel Castro regarding a statement by Kennedy, fallout from the Punta del Este conference, prospects for Latin American revolutionary spirit, and Raul Castro's upcoming trip to the Soviet Union.

  • March 24, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 24 March 1962

    Jelen relays information presented by Blas Roca and Emilio Aragones Navarro on the ORI's decision to exclude Anibal Escalante from the leadership of the ORI.

  • April 05, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 5 April 1962

    Jelen continues his report on the ORI's decision to exclude Escalante from the leadership.

  • April 14, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 14 April 1962

    Jelen continues his report on the Escalante affair, with more information that there are no rifts between the members of the former Popular Socialist Party (PSP) and the members of the former "July 26th Movement." Jelen also summarizes the personnel changes within the Cuban leadership.

  • June 09, 1962

    Soviet Report by Cuban Involvement in Assisting Partisans in Other Latin American Countries

    Report on a conversation between Fidel Castro and Soviet representatives. Castro believed that revolutionary situation has developed in all Central American countries (except Mexico) and a few South American countries. In his opinion, a slight push in the form of armed actions by partisans would rally the peasant masses and bring about regime change. The report also discussed Havana's low opinion of many Latin American Communist Parties. Cuba's bypassing these parties in interfering in the respective countries' affairs worsened the relations between them and Havana.

  • November 05, 1962

    Memorandum of Conversation, A.I. Mikoyan with Osvaldo Dorticos, Ernesto Guevara, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez

    Alekseev and Mikoyan discuss the nature of UN inspections in Cuba with Cuban leadership. Cuban leadership discusses what they feel is a Soviet concession to the US, thereby weakening the international socialist movement.

  • November 16, 1962

    Record of Conversation between Mikoyan and Ernesto 'Che' Guevara, Havana, 16 November 1962

    The conversation takes place soon after the IL-28 crisis, which gives Mikoyan a chance to patch up the relationship with trade agreements and promises of future aid and industrial cooperation. Near the end of the conversation, Guevara and Mikoyan discuss the theory of revolutionary struggle. Guevara shares his vision that “further development of the revolutions in Latin America must follow the line of simultaneous explosions in all countries.” Mikoyan cautions him, pointing to the Soviet experience and using the metaphor of the rebellion on the battleship “Potemkin.” Hinting at further disagreement ahead, he gently registers his disagreement with the Cuban leader’s drive to ignite revolution in the hemisphere.

  • March 02, 1963

    Letter to a Member of the Leadership of the Argentine Communist Party, Cde. Alcira de la Pena, from Argentine Friends in Cuba

    The development and distribution of socialist papers and materials between Cuba, Argentina, and other Latin American countries is discussed.

  • March 03, 1965

    Bulgarian Embassy, Havana (Kulbov), Information Regarding The Latin American Communist Parties’ Conference

    First Secretary of the Bulgarian Embassy to Cuba A. Hubenov describes a Latin American communist party conference held in Havana, November 1964. The parties secretly discussed their struggle against imperialism and the expansion of communist revolutions in Latin America and Cuba's assistance to that struggle. Conference deliberations included a discussion of the Sino-Soviet split and the fear of factions within the communist movement.

  • March 31, 1966

    Embassy, Havana, Report on the State of the Cuban Communist Party

    In a report on the Cuban Communist Party, Bulgarian Embassy counselor S. Cohen discusses strengths and concerns with the Cuban goverment. The Cuban revolutionary movement debunked the theory of geographically determined fatalism, but also displays a strong dependence on the Latin American liberation movement (e.g. Jose Mari, Simon Bolivar) for inspiration instead of socialist principles. Cohen reports negative developments including the Cuban government’s growing ambition to rule the Third World revolutionary movement and strong belief in the Cuban armed struggle as a template for all national liberation movements. The Cuban delegation strongly endorsed armed struggle as the only means of socialist advancement at the Tricontinental Conference recently held in Havana. Bulgaria must remain close with the Cuban government to help it develop economically and mature politically.

  • January 11, 1967

    Cooperation between the Czechoslovak and Cuban Intelligence Services

    The report introduces Czechoslovak's assistance in the Operation MANUEL after the isolation of socialist Castro regime. Cuba looked for alternative routes in Europe in order to promote and influence the revolutionary movement in Latin America. Czechoslovakia assistance in the operation is of a strictly technical nature and its intelligence service is doing its utmost to protect the interests of the country by securing all technical matters. The report says that terminating the assistance was not possible for both practical and political reasons-- all direct flights between Czechoslovakia and Cuba would be suspended and a drastic cooling off of relations between two governments. Czechoslovak's refusal in assisting the operation would be interpreted as a political decision to suspend assistance to the national liberation movement in Latin America countries. However, the reports says that the assistance of Czechoslovak intelligence service to the operation is in no way amounts to agreeing with its political content and constitutes a minor aspect of intelligence work. The Soviet intelligence was also involved in organizing the operation in Moscow and offered assistance to its Cuban counterpart.

  • August 15, 1968

    Information from Bulgarian Ambassador in Havana Stefan Petrov to Bulgarian Leader Todor Zhivkov on the Domestic and Foreign Policy of Cuba

    Bulgarian Ambassador to Cuba Stefan Petrov analyzes Cuba’s domestic and foreign policies in an informational report to Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov. Petrov criticizes Cuban Communist Party policies and claims they are incompatible with Marxism-Leninism (e.g. Cuba’s focus on conflict between imperialism and national liberation rather than socialism and capitalism). Cuba has adopted an anti-Soviet attitude and believes Cuban leadership is the vanguard of communism. Petrov reviews Cuba’s conflicting relations with Latin American communist parties and Cuba's support to guerilla movements in the region. Petrov notes that Bulgarian-Cuban relations remain positive.

  • 1970

    Letter to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union, B. N. Ponomarev

    A letter describing the state of socialist and communist movements in Latin America with respect to their organized struggle against the imperial influence of the US. The letter indicates that the growth of youth, workers' and women's movements in Latin America is conducive to the development of stronger ties with the socialist countries around the world. The letter suggests that a strategic approach towards Latin America should be adopted in establishing cooperation in all spheres of life: economic, political, and cultural. An emphasis is placed on the gradual development of close relations with Latin American communist parties.

  • March, 1970

    Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Member Boris Velchev, Report to Boris N. Ponomarev, Secretary, Central Committee, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), re: Relations with Latin America

    Bulgarian Politburo member Boris Velchin reports on a Bulgarian delegation visit to Latin American in late 1969. Liberation movements are characterized by mass participation against imperialism, not socialism. Latin American communist parties have a strong theoretical base, but are weak. Velchev proposes that socialist countries create coordinated economic and political strategies towards Latin American countries and aid the populist movements in their quest for liberation from imperialism. Velchin is interested in collaborating with the Soviet Union, which should coordinate the effort.

  • November 28, 1978

    Information on the Developments in Nicaragua

    Report which outlines the activity of leftist opposition movements in Nicaragua in their attempt to overthrow the rule of Somoza. The text gives an account of the support which various leftist opposition organizations have received from neighboring countries. According to the information, the following groups have overtly expressed discontent with the ruling regime: The Democratic Union for Liberation, the “Group of Twelve,” the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement, and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). Those movements have been supported politically, financially, and in some instances with military aid, by the governments of Venezuela, Mexico, Panama, Costa Rica, and Cuba. The text suggests that two factors have contributed to the escalating tension in Nicaragua – the internal struggle against the regime combined with pressures from outside, coming mainly from the USA, to keep the regime in place.

  • 1980

    Information on the Relations between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Nicaragua

    Summary which details the bi-lateral exchange of cadres that has taken place between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Nicaragua after the establishment of the temporary government for rehabilitation of Nicaragua. The document lists the educational and military exchange initiatives that have been developed between November 1978 and October 1980.