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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • 1978

    Instructions to the Soviet Ambassador in Kabul

    Strengthening the ideas of the April Revolution through increasing DRA and PDPA party ties to foster an intra-party democracy is the basis for an upcoming meeting between H. Amin and senior Soviet policy makers in Moscow.

  • July 11, 1978

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador Puzanov, Memorandum of Conversation with N.M. Taraki and Delegation of the Soviet Academy of Sciences

    Ae delegation from the USSR Academy of Sciences meets with Taraki to discuss scientific development in Afghanistan and future collaboration with the Soviet Union.

  • July 11, 1978

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador Puzanov, Memorandum of Conversation with Hafizullah Amin and Delegation of the Soviet Academy of Sciences

    Soviet Ambassador Puzanov introduces Hafizullah Amin at the Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs to a delegation from the USSR Academy of Sciences, headed by the President of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR, M.S. Asimov. They discuss the state of scientific research in Afghanistan and future scientific cooperation with the Soviet Union.

  • April 01, 1979

    Memo on Protocol #149 of the Politburo, "Our future policy in connection with the situation in Afghanistan"

    The following CPSU Central Committee document, dated 1 April 1979 and signed by Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, Defense Minister Dmitrii Ustinov, KGB chief Yurii Andropov, and CC International Department head Boris Ponomarev, provides a strikingly candid assessment of the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan that the Soviet Politburo confronted in spring 1979. The report attributes the increasing success of the Islamic opposition (i.e., the Afghan Mujaheddin) to the “miscalculations and mistakes” of the PDPA (People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan) regime that seized power following the April 1978 “revolution.”

  • October 29, 1980

    Soviet briefing on the talks between Brezhnev and B. Karmal in Moscow

    This document reveals Babrak Karmal's positive views of Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Karmal thanks Soviet leadership for substantial economic and political support, discussing the integration of Soviet economic reforms into the Afghan economy. Karmal states that the turmoil within Afghan political parties is almost solved, and is progressing towards unity.

  • May 10, 1981

    Report of Military Leaders to D. F. Ustinov

    This document reveals reluctance on the part of the Soviets to maintain military involvement in Afghanistan, and difficulty in shaping a newly forming Afghan government. The PDPA's efforts to establish a democratic government, Soviets analysts revealed, were hampered by tribalism and strong ethnic disagreements regarding the scope and shape of their government.

  • January 26, 1983

    Excerpts from several reports about the situation in the PDPA compiled by the KGB

    An assessment of the military-political situation in Afghanistan. Intra-party disagreements posed a threat to the stability of the government, and its long-term viability.

  • 1986

    GRU Dossier on Najibullah

    Biography of Najibullah, General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) from a dossier of the USSR Armed Forces General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate.

  • November 13, 1986

    Memorandum from KGB Chief Viktor M. Chebrikov, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, Defense Minister Marshal Sergei L. Sokolov, and Central Committee International Relations Secretary Anatoly Dobrynin to CPSU Politburo

    This document highlights the efforts of the PDPA leadership to increase its membership among Afghan mullahs, landowners, and the aristocracy in order to legitimize the party among the Afghan people. It also reveals possible UN involvement in affairs surrounding Afghanistan after a possible Soviet withdrawal.

  • May 22, 1987

    Notes from Politburo Meeting, 21-22 May 1987 (Excerpt)

    Gorbachev and his advisors discuss building a coalition government in Afghanistan before the withdrawal of Soviet troops and also the lack of acceptance of the Soviet-backed People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).

  • July 20, 1987

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan Cde. Najib (Excerpt)

    Najibullah and Gorbachev discuss the implementation of a policy of "national reconciliation" and political settlement in preparation for Soviet troops withdrawal from Afghanistan.

  • November 03, 1987

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan Najibullah

    Najibullah and Gorbachev discuss a recent all-party conference of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and plans to hold a coalition meeting (Loya Jirga) at which a new Afghan constitution will be adopted and a new president elected.

  • January 10, 1988

    Report to Minister of Defense Gen. Dmitri T. Yazov from Gen. Valentin Varennikov in Kabul, January 1988

    General Varennikov reports on a meeting with Layek, a close advisor of Afghan President Najibullah. HTey discussed steps necessary to strengthen the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan and stabilize the country prior to the withdrawal of Soviet troops.