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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 03, 1959

    Report of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

  • June 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.

  • June 07, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Cairo, Delo Balili, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The ambassador informs the Ministry that the conference of non-aligned countries is still in session, and is divided into three groups. Balili calls the first group “rightists”, which includes India and Yugoslavia among others. He calls the second group “leftists”, which includes Cuba, Guinea, Somalia, etc. The last group, according to Balili, are the “centrists” which include the United Arab Republic, Ghana, etc. In this telegram, Balili describes the contentions between the three groups.

  • June 10, 1961

    Telegram from Delo Balili to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Balili writes that the location of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries will be a contentious issue for the participants. The UAR and India have proposed Belgrade. This location is supported by the British and Americans.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jozip Broz Tito and George F. Kennan

    Kennan reports on a conversation with Tito where they discussed the upcoming Belgrade Conference of Non-Aligned States.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • August 01, 1961

    Telegram from Jovan Andoni, an official in the Albanian Embassy in Poland, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Andoni reports that the advisor in the Cuban embassy in Warsaw had told him that he has not received any official information from the Cuban government and, according to him, Cuba would not participate in the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade.

  • September 04, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Budapest, Edip Cuci, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    The Albanian ambassador reports that the Hungarian press published Khrushchev’s message to the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries and excerpts of different speeches by participants of the conference. Hungarian television showed excerpts from the conference as well.

  • November 02, 1963

    Telegram from Ambassador J.N. Khosla, 'Proposed Non-Aligned Conference' and 'Tito’s Tour of the Americas (Continued)'

    Yugoslavia accepted a proposal for a second non-alignment conference, but was "not to keen" on it. Further details of Tito's tours through Bolivia, Mexico and the United States.

  • November 18, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Head of Pakistan’s Delegation Participating in the PRC’s National Day Celebration, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani

    Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, representing Pakistan. The two discuss, at length, their criticisms of United States imperialism, pointing to, among other things, Algeria and French Indochina as examples of imperialism's impending fall. Zhou then explains to Bhashani the importance of holding an Afro Asian Conference before the upcoming Non-Aligned Conference, which Zhou views as an attempt by Nehru and Tito to "destroy the Afro-Asian Conference." Conversation concludes by discussing the Kashmir conflict.

  • December 17, 1963

    Record of the Second Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nasser

    Zhou and Nasser discuss developments in and relations with Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Yemen, and Mauritania, as well as the Non-Aligned Movement and the proposed second Asian-African Conference.

  • December 19, 1963

    Record of the Third Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nasser

    Zhou Enlai describes the state of Sino-American relations and Sino-Indian relations. Zhou and Nasser also discuss the Egyptian economy and Sino-Egyptian relations.

  • January 15, 1964

    Cable from Kong, Huang, and Tong, 'Situation of the Ghana Visit'

    A summary of Zhou Enlai's conversation with Kwame Nkrumah that covered Sino-Ghanian relations, China's status at the UN, liberation movements in Africa, Sino-Indian relations, the Non-Aligned Movement, nuclear weapons free zones in Africa, and the Congo crisis, among other subjects.

  • February 01, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Situation of the Premier's Visit to Three West African Countries'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry summarizes Zhou Enlai's conversations with Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Keita, and Ahmed Sekou Toure. Emphasis is placed on the revolutionary conditions in Ghana, Mali, and Guinea, relations with the Soviet Union, and the Non-Aligned Movement and the Second Asian-African Conference.

  • March 08, 1964

    Record of Premier Zhou Enlai's Conversations with the President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah

    Over the course of three conversations, Zhou and Nkrumah discuss African regionalism, China's position at the United Nations and its relations with the United States, non-alignment, decolonization, developments in the Congo, and an African nuclear-weapons-free zone.

  • June 26, 1964

    Report on the 1st and 2nd Conference of Non-Aligned Countries

    According to this report, the African and Asian countries were not satisfied with the 1st Belgrade conference and were trying to call what is known today as the 2nd non-aligned conference in Bandung. Tito and Nehru also reiterated the need for the 2nd conference of non-aligned countries in order to undermine the attempts of the former in initiating the effort. According to the Western press, Nehru took the initiative and sent his Vice-Foreign Minister, Dinish Sing, to Cairo and Belgrade where he met Nasser and Tito, both of whom were expecting him. Tito called for more participants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. According to Tito’s recommendation, on March 23, 1964, in Colombo, Ceylon, the preparatory meeting was held on the ambassadorial level of Asian, African, and Latin American countries about the upcoming conference. The Soviet Union expressed its support for this conference in Soviet media. The report reveals the following to be discussed topics at the conference: peace, peaceful coexistence, resolution of disputes without the use of force, disarmament, etc. The Albanian government supports the conference of non-aligned countries in principle, but it does not show enthusiasm and avoids promoting the conference in Albania, in the media, and in the international arena. In addition, the report stresses that Albanian diplomats are ordered to follow the Ministry’s guidelines in order to maintain specific policies targeted at each Asian and African country individually.

  • August 06, 1964

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and the Algerian Ambassador to China Mohamed Yala

    Zhou Enlai and Mohamed Yala exchange views on the situation in Vietnam and across Africa, while discussing the Second Asian-African Conference and the Non-Aligned Movement

  • December 24, 1964

    K.R. Narayanan, 'India and the Chinese Bomb'

    K.R. Narayanan, Director of China Division at Ministry of External Affairs, writes that the explosion of the first nuclear bomb by China will alter the political balance of Asia and the world and development of nuclear weapons by India can be justified and beneficial for the country and the international system as well.

  • January 27, 1965

    Record of Premier Zhou and Vice Premier Chen Yi's Third Conversation with Subandrio

    Zhou and Subandrio discuss Indonesia's withdrawal from the United Nations, non-alignment, the Soviet Union, and the Second Asian-African Conference.

  • April 02, 1965

    Record of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and the President of Pakistan Ayub Khan

    Zhou, Ayub Khan, and Zulfikar Bhutto discuss the Vietnam War, China's relations with the US and the Soviet Union, the Second Asian-African Conference, and the Non-Aligned Movement.