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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 21, 1962

    Research Memorandum RSB-58 from Roger Hilsman to the Secretary, 'Probable Soviet Reaction to Establishment of Multilateral NATO-Controlled MRBM Force'

    As discussion of a NATO multilateral force (MLF) unfolded, unfolded, one question which had to be addressed was how the Soviet Union would respond to the creation of such a NATO force. Because a NATO force would increase Western military capabilities, Soviet opposition was assumed.

  • January 01, 1963

    Note by SMD on Inter-Allied Force

    Note by Gen. Aldo Rossi on aims, composition and structure of the Nuclear Interallied Force and potential advantages for Italy.

  • January 01, 1963

    Note by Piero Vinci to Andreotti on MLF

    Note by Minister's cabinet head Piero Vinci on political and technical issues related to MLF in preparation for discussions with President Kennedy. Also discussed are changes to NATO Standing Group and nomination of gen. De Martino as vice chairman of the Military Committee

  • January 07, 1963

    MAE Analysis on NATO MLF after Nassau accords

    MAE analysis on Nassau accords, issue of NATO MLF, and availability of naval units for Polaris program. Includes preliminary considerations on Italian position to the Atlantic Council.

  • February 08, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Defense Policy'

    These Council of Ministers minutes report on the meeting between Prime Minister De Quay and several of his state secretaries with NATO Secretary-General Stikker, who gave an outline of what was still called a ‘NATO Nuclear Force’. The prime minister responded positively to the plan but indicated the incoming cabinet would have to take a final decision. In the discussion, Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns comments on the attitude of President De Gaulle and points out that NATO and EEC matters ought to be viewed separately.

  • February 08, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by embassies in Parigi, Aja and Italian Atlantic Council delegation on recent developments of NATO MLF.

  • February 13, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to Piccioni concerning NATO MLF consultations

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini to Deputy Prime Minister on NATO consultations, positions of the members of the Alliance and Nassau agrrements for the creation of a multilateral nuclear force. In particular, the paper discusses the points of view of SACEUR L. Lemnitzer and US Ambassor to NATO Finletter.

  • March 14, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to MAE and MD on Issue of Surface Ships MLF

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on discussions with US technological experts within the delegation of the head of the MLF negotiating team L. Merchant.

  • March 15, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Atlantic Nuclear Weapons Plan'

    The Council discusses the danger of the German Federal Republic moving to acquire an independent nuclear force. Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns regrets the American focus on the Germans at the expense of the British. Resistance from the French regarding the plan is not expected.

  • March 21, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to Piccioni concerning NATO MLF consultations

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on consultatons in Paris between the Birindelli and Lee groups regarding technological-military options related to Polaris A3-armed naval forces. Two annexes concerning survivability and costs.

  • March 26, 1963

    Note by SMD on NATO MLF

    Analysis by Gen. A. Rossi on NATO multinational and multilateral force proposals. In particular, the paper focused on MLF features, with political military legal and financial observations. It includes also a technical analysis of the US proposal for a MLF based on Polaris-armed merchant ships .

  • April 17, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on French Position on MLF

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on objections by French representativ to NATO MLF.

  • May 13, 1963

    Note by JSMD to MD on MLF

    Considerations by Gen. Aldo Rossi on the structure of NATO nuclear forces, Inter-allied and Multilateral Force, issues of surface ships vulnerability, costs and budget.

  • May 20, 1963

    MAE cable on FRG defense budget and MLF

    Note on FRG's position vis-à-vis the MLF particularly Defense Minister Von Hassel's position, as emerged in the course of debates over the FRG defense budget.

  • June 05, 1963

    Research Memorandum REU-44 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Evidence of Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction in European NATO Countries with the Lack of a Share in Ownership or Control of Nuclear Weapons'

    Ambassador Livingston Merchant, who was responsible for the U.S. diplomatic effort to win support for the MLF, asked INR to report on the degree to which non-nuclear European members of NATO were satisfied with their “lack of a share in ownership or control of nuclear weapons.” Based on the evidence, mainly various statements made by leading politicians, diplomats, and policymakers, INR experts concluded that most of the countries surveyed (Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Greece) were “relatively satisfied,” while only West Germany was “restive” to the extent that some of its officials were interested in a NATO or European nuclear force.

  • June 07, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Council in Ottawa and Visit to President Kennedy'

    The Council of Ministers report on the NATO council meeting in Ottawa, which Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns and Minister of Defense Visser attended. Luns spoke privately with President Kennedy about the attitude of the French and the possibility of an independent German nuclear arsenal. Visser visited weapons centers in the United States and emphasizes the need to accept American leadership in the defense of Europe.

  • June 13, 1963

    Analysis by SMD on Proposal to assign to NATO Italian Polaris-armed Ships

    Considerations by Gen. Aldo Rossi on prospective assignment to NATO of Italian ships armed with Polaris. Includes a discussion of issue of surface ships and responses by US Navy to Italian questions. Two annexes: 1 Inter-allied Nuclear Force, pros for Italy; 2 Italy's position on Multilateral Nuclear Force.

  • June 22, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by italian ambassador to the US Fenoaltea on meeting with the head of the MLF negotiating team L.T. Merchant.

  • July 15, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by ambassador to the UK Pietro Quaroni on meeting with Foreign Minister Douglas-Home after President Kennedy's discussions in Rome on MLF.

  • July 23, 1963

    Note by MD Cabinet on MLF

    Summary of Report by Italian embassy in London on discussions between ambassador Quaroni and british foreign minister Douglas-Home on NATO MLF.