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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 29, 1960

    Ten-Year Strategy Report by the General Staff of Defense (SMD) on Military problems of NATO to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    This ten-year strategy report created by the SMD is about perspectives and problems that NATO should face in developing a military strategy. Topics: French nuclear strategy; NATO tactical and strategic nuclear weapons; the relevance of conventional weapons; possible improvement in the decision to use nuclear weapons; nuclear cooperation and integration in NATO countries.

  • February 07, 1961

    Memorandum by Admiral Corrado Tagliamonte to the Minister of Defense, 'British memorandum on NATO nuclear weapons'

    Observations of the SMD on two topics, "The British vision of NATO weapons" and "General Norstad to the Atlantic Council." It concludes with three handwritten pages by Alessandrini to Andreotti, 3 February 1961.

  • April 01, 1961

    Memorandum by Admiral Corrado Tagliamonte to the Minister of Defense, 'American attitude toward NATO. President Kennedy's declarations'

    Report submitted to the Italian Minister of Defense regarding President Kennedy’s opinion that NATO should not construct a special nuclear force since the US has already developed a nuclear deterrent. According to the Kennedy, the creation of an additional deterrent would be useless and a waste of resources.

  • June 14, 1961

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Segni

    Alessandrini writes regarding the Minister Of Foreign Affairs speech on the problems of NATO's military, including its nuclear strategy. Despite the assurances of the United States, Europeans fear of having to fight conventional Soviet forces.

  • June 14, 1961

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Segni

    Report on the imbalance between nuclear and conventional weapons in NATO’s defense program. The Allied powers have reduced their production of planes and ships in favor of nuclear weapons development, which worries Alessandrini because conventional weapons have not decreased in importance since the start of the Cold War.

  • June 17, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Atlantic Alliance's strategy - National military way of thinking'

    Summary of NATO’s nuclear defense strategy, stressing the importance of utilizing both conventional and nuclear weapons and refraining from using more nuclear power than is absolutely necessary to combat Soviet aggression.

  • January 31, 1962

    Research Memorandum REU-25 from Roger Hilsman to Mr. Kohler, 'European Attitudes on Independent Nuclear Capability'

    Concerns about the credibility of US nuclear deterrence generated Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) General Lauris Norstad’s proposal for a NATO-controlled medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) force. This lengthy report represented INR’s assessment of “present and future European interest in national or multinational nuclear weapons capabilities,” including the MRBM proposal, and the extent to which an “enhancement of NATO's nuclear role” could “deter national or multinational European nuclear weapons programs.”

  • November 03, 1962

    Notes of Conversation between A.I. Mikoyan and Fidel Castro

    Soviet Ambassador to Cuba Alexeev reports on the conversation between Mikoyan and Fidel Castro. The Cuban leader expresses his disappointment that the Cuban leadership was not consulted on the issue of withdrawing Soviet weapons from Cuba and on the Cuban Missile Crisis in general, and emphasizes the negative impact it has had and confusion it has caused on the Cuban people.

  • December 04, 1962

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Italy's permanent representative to NATO Alessandrini writes to PM Andreotti in preparation for the upcoming Paris summit. He shares general remarks about the state of the alliance and current issues in international relations focusing on the German question, Cuba, and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • December 19, 1962

    Memorandum of Conversation, 'Skybolt'

    This memorandum details an extensive conversation between representatives from the U.S. and Great Britain about President Kennedy's decision to cancel work on "Skybolt," or a surface-to-air missile that the British were invested in. The meeting was an attempt to placate a "looming crisis" in Anglo-American relations.

  • January 15, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on Nassau Accords

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on outline to the Atlantic Council of Nassau Accords; the paper also discusses the problem of NATO nuclear defense, the US position on autonomous arsenals and Italy's position.

  • January 15, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on NATO and Nuclear Forces

    Note by ambassador to the UK Pietro Quaroni on NATO US leadership, nuclear balance, european nuclear deterrent, conventional armaments and bilateral relations between European countries and the US.

  • January 28, 1963

    Bulgarian Consulate, Istanbul (Karadimov), Cable to Foreign Ministry

    Bulgarian General Consul in Istanbul Dimo Karadimov reports to the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry news of new ballistic missiles in Turkey. Specifically, Karadimov notes that the US military will replace Jupiter missiles with Polaris missiles within the year. Karadimov cannot confirm NATO's involvement.

  • February 08, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Defense Policy'

    These Council of Ministers minutes report on the meeting between Prime Minister De Quay and several of his state secretaries with NATO Secretary-General Stikker, who gave an outline of what was still called a ‘NATO Nuclear Force’. The prime minister responded positively to the plan but indicated the incoming cabinet would have to take a final decision. In the discussion, Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns comments on the attitude of President De Gaulle and points out that NATO and EEC matters ought to be viewed separately.

  • February 15, 1963

    Bulgarian Legation, Washington (Shterev), Cable to Foreign Ministry

    Bulgarian Charge d’Affaires in the US Kiril Shterev reports to the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs that US Deputy Secretary of Defense Roswell Gilpatric stated that three submarines carrying Polaris missiles will be deployed to the Mediterranean Sea. The deployment follows US withdrawal from Italian and Turkish bases after the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • March 15, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Atlantic Nuclear Weapons Plan'

    The Council discusses the danger of the German Federal Republic moving to acquire an independent nuclear force. Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns regrets the American focus on the Germans at the expense of the British. Resistance from the French regarding the plan is not expected.

  • June 05, 1963

    Research Memorandum REU-44 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Evidence of Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction in European NATO Countries with the Lack of a Share in Ownership or Control of Nuclear Weapons'

    Ambassador Livingston Merchant, who was responsible for the U.S. diplomatic effort to win support for the MLF, asked INR to report on the degree to which non-nuclear European members of NATO were satisfied with their “lack of a share in ownership or control of nuclear weapons.” Based on the evidence, mainly various statements made by leading politicians, diplomats, and policymakers, INR experts concluded that most of the countries surveyed (Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Greece) were “relatively satisfied,” while only West Germany was “restive” to the extent that some of its officials were interested in a NATO or European nuclear force.

  • June 07, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Council in Ottawa and Visit to President Kennedy'

    The Council of Ministers report on the NATO council meeting in Ottawa, which Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns and Minister of Defense Visser attended. Luns spoke privately with President Kennedy about the attitude of the French and the possibility of an independent German nuclear arsenal. Visser visited weapons centers in the United States and emphasizes the need to accept American leadership in the defense of Europe.

  • August 02, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Position Regarding NATO Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns gives the new Marijnen cabinet a sketch of the multilateral NATO nuclear force situation so far. He is now of the opinion that the Netherlands should not join a multilateral NATO nuclear force. Minister of Defense De Jong says the Dutch government will need to take a position near the end of the year.

  • October 02, 1963

    Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Paper Regarding Dutch Participation in Talks Regarding a Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Paper presented at 4 October 1963 meeting of the Dutch Council of Ministers. The paper lays out the reasons for declining to participate in the Multilateral Force so far, but argues that due to changes in the situation – principally a turn on the part of the British toward participation – the Netherlands now should move to participate in the talks. The paper lists the (political) advantages of such participation.