January 24, 1996
State Department Telegram 012545 to Intsum Collective, 'Intsum: India: Nuclear Test Unlikely'
Provides an overview of preparations for the nuclear test as well as a discussion on the pressures weighing on Indian Prime Minister Rao to launch the test. Prepared by one of INR’s South Asia experts, Steven Ghitelman, it provides an overview of the test site preparations that began in November and decided described Prime Minister Rao as facing pressures to test from the BJP and from the nuclear establishment. The pressures were not insurmountable because other considerations were important, such as avoiding international sanctions, continuing steps toward economic liberalization, and pressures to support the CTBT. Ghitelman concluded that it would be “vintage Rao” for him to allow the scientists to prepare for a test “while not authorizing them to conduct one.” That is what happened.
February 12, 1996
Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-United States. Brazilian space program. Visit of the chairman of CTA to Brazil.'
This document describes the Computer Technology Associates’ (CTA) interest in investing in Brazil's space sector. In a scheduled visit to Brasília, Tom Velez, CEO at CTA, would discuss his company’s interest in producing 20 communication satellites using Brazilian technology and construction of the proper infrastructures to launch these satellites from CLA.
February 28, 1996
Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-United States. Visit of the Secretary of State. Non-proliferation.'
This cable reports the visit of the US Secretary of State Warren Christopher to Brazil. Issues related to non-proliferation dominated the meeting. Christopher emphasized the importance of Brazil strengthening its commitments to non-proliferation norms by signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Brazilian officials expected to improve the dialogue with the US administration after Brazil’s adherence to the MTCR.
March 25, 1996
Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry
This document reports the visit of Kenneth Fisher, Lockheed’s representative, to Brasília. During the meeting, Fisher argued that in order for Lockheed to start its operations in Brazil, the company required Brazilian adherence to the Missile Technology Control Regime and the consent of the American government.
July 08, 1996
Email, Caroline Russell, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, to Lawrence Schein, Robert Rochlin, et al
Caroline Russell of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) discusses how the Indian program is not yet ready for a test and that pressure for one is more politically than technically motivated.
August 12, 1996
US Embassy in New Delhi Telegram 9250 to State Department, 'Ambassador’s Meeting with Opposition Leader'
Report on US Ambassador to India Frank Wisner's meeting with Indian Opposition Leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and halting any nuclear test. The Ambassador found the meeting unproductive. The CTBT was central to the discussion but it was evident that Vajpayee was not interested and his “body language” indicated that he was inclined to favor a nuclear test. During one point in the discussion, Vajpayee asked, “What if we start underground tests?” According to the embassy’s message, “we interpret his question about testing as indicating that [he] and the BJP would favor a test” and would not be persuaded by U.S. arguments—“reason”—to forego one.
August 29, 1996
Letter from Minister of Defense Diplomatic Adviser Sessa to General Secretary Biancheri, 'Adjustment of the Alliance; Updating of the situation and of the possible orientations of Italy's position'
A detailed study on actual and potential adaptation measures of the NATO, and Italy's position vis-à-vis the coming changes. The document illustrates serious concerns over possible marginalization of the Italian role in the future of the alliance.
September 12, 1996
South African Department of Foreign Affairs, 'Backgrounder for Use During the Bilateral Discussions with Iran on Disarmament and Non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction'
Background information for use by a South African representative in bilateral discussions with Iran on disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
October 28, 1996
Letter, South African Department of Foreign Affairs Director-General to the Non-Proliferation Secretariat
Letter to D. J. van Beek, the Non-proliferation Secretary, regarding the South African National Conventional Arms Control Committee request for an interdepartmental working group on national policy on transparency in arms trade and transfers.
November 01, 1996
Email, Caroline Russell to Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Staff, 'Priority: India Nuclear Debate – Comments from Raja'
Caroline Russell emails her staff at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency regarding Raja Ramanna's recent statements regarding the state of India's nuclear program. Ramanna was the Director of the Defence Research and Development Organisation and was quoted in the Times of India stating that India already had a capability which did not need to be tested.
February 22, 1997
President of Centro Alti Studi Difesa, ' Note for the Minister - NATO's enlargement. Scenarios, Italian interests and possible options'
The report examines the challenges associated with the enlargement of NATO, and identifies Italian interests and concerns. It outlines the motivations driving the enlargement efforts, and draws attention to the possible reduction in Italian role in the European context.
April 15, 1997
Cable, South African Department of Foreign Affairs, 'Credentials for the Second Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization in Vienna, 12-16 May 1997'
Draft copy of the letter of credentials that Mr. Nzo, Minister for Foreign Affairs, will provide for the South African delegation to represent the Republic of South Africa at the Second Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Vienna in May, 1997. The delegation is to be led by Mr. Jacob Selebi.
June 26, 1997
Cable from the Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Outer space. Expansion of the international market for spatial services. Brazilian insertion. Entrepreneurial interest. CLA. ECCO. Considerations.'
Brazilian diplomat Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima recommends that the Brazilian government should proceed to make the Brazilian space market more attractive for foreign investments. Among Flecha de Lima’s suggestions is the creation of a set of norms to regulate commercial activities at the Alcântara Launch Center.
Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Z Division, 'Challenges of Advanced Nuclear Weapon Development in India'
This heavily-redacted study is one of the few Z Division (International Assessments Program) documents that have been released. An unredacted portion (pp. 25-26) reports on the statements, labeled “inconsistent” by the author(s), of Indian nuclear scientists after the May 1998 Indian nuclear tests with regard to specific details of the devices tested.
Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Z Division, 'Challenges of Advanced Nuclear Weapon Development in Pakistan'
This study, even more heavily redacted than the Z Division study on India (November 1988), examined the status of Pakistan’s nuclear weapon status, and number of other topics (deleted from the table of contents), and policy implications. The Joint Special Operations Command is among the agencies on the distribution list. As the report is a “Gamma Controlled Item,” some of the excisions relate to communications intelligence information.
August 01, 2000
Thesis, US Joint Military Intelligence College, 'From Independence to the Bomb: India’s Nuclear Motivations, 1945-1974'
This unclassified JMIC thesis focuses both on general motivations for nuclear proliferation as well as examining the specific case of India. Its chapters focus on key issues for nuclear motivations analysis; economic motivations for nuclear power, 1945-1964; India’s bid for nuclear self-reliance, 1962-1974; India’s nuclear motivations, and implications of India’s decisions.