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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 08, 1986

    Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate of Intelligence, 'President Sarney and Brazil’s Nuclear Policy'

    A Directorate of Intelligence analysis, prepared in 1986, provides an interesting contrast with excisions in the NIEs on the indigenous program; it includes details on the major Navy, Air Force, and Army components of the indigenous program, including the nuclear submarine objective. As with the NIEs, the authors of this report saw no “political decision” on nuclear weapons and further noted President Sarney’s public statements against a weapons program. But a piece of political intelligence initially excised from this report suggested, rightly or wrongly, that Sarney may have been personally ambivalent.

  • September 08, 1986

    Memorandum by Director of Global Issues, 'President Sarney and Brazil´s Nuclear Policy'

    This is a CIA assessment of Brazilian nuclear politics a few weeks before President Sarney's visit to the U.S.

  • September 04, 1987

    Cable on Ambassador Rubens Ricupero’s Meetings with President Alfonsín and Ambassador Jorge Sabato about Nuclear Cooperation

    This cable summarizes Ambassador Ricupero’s mission to Argentina, where he conveyed a report that Brazil had mastered uranium enrichment. President Alfonsín’s letter of reply is included.

  • August 24, 1990

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Outer space. Complete Brazilian spatial mission. Launching of Brazilian data gathering satellite by foreign rocket.'

    In this cable addressed to the Brazilian embassy in Washington, the Brazilian Foreign Ministry summarizes the main goals and activities of the Brazilian space program. It reports the shortage of funds and personnel that the program suffered during the 1980s and indicates that they were the main cause of delay in the development of the Brazilian space launch vehicle (SLV) in tandem with the restrictions imposed by the MTCR.

  • July, 1991

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE 5-91C, 'Prospects for Special Weapons Proliferation and Control'

    With the term “weapons of mass destruction” having not yet fully come into general usage, this NIE used the term “special weapons” to describe nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (formerly the term “special weapons” was sometimes used to describe nuclear weapons only). With numerous excisions, including the names of some countries in the sections on “East Asia and the Pacific” and “Central America,” this wide-ranging estimate provides broad-brushed, sometimes superficial, pictures of the situations in numerous countries along with coverage of international controls to halt sensitive technology exports to suspect countries.

  • October 18, 1991

    Letter from President Collor to President Bush on the Brazilian Space Program

    This letter sent by President Fernando Collor to President George H. W. Bush describes the importance of the first Brazilian made satellite to the country and communicates that the French-American consortium Orbital Sciences Corporation will probably be the enterprise chosen to put the Brazilian satellite in orbit. President Collor expected that this partnership paved the way for further cooperation in the space field and informed President Bush of his decision to create the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), under civilian control.

  • March 07, 1992

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington

    Barbara Tobias, scientific attaché to the US embassy in Brasília, visited the Brazilian Foreign Ministry to discuss Brazil’s inclusion in the list of countries subjected to a rigorous system of exports control (“validated license”). Tobias explained that the decision was not made by consensus and that it was largely a demand of the American Congress.

  • June 05, 1992

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-USA. Access to advanced technology. High level mission. General evaluation.'

    This cable reports the outcome of the visit made by the Missile Technology Control Regime's mission to Brazil headed by Reginald Bartholomew, Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs. Throughout the meeting, the Brazilian space program was described as the most sensitive issue in regard to the MTCR.

  • June 11, 1992

    Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-USA. Access to advanced technology. MTCR. Supplementary regulation on missile technology exports.'

    This cable, sent from the Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Brasília, reports Brazil’s inclusion in the list of countries that might manufacture rockets. The inclusion was in the supplement number 6 section 778 of the “Export Administration Regulations.” The US administration’s report on the list also notes the importance of the Brazilian government’s recent steps towards non-proliferation and that its inclusion in the list is due to its rocket programs and the development of its SLV.

  • July 17, 1992

    Cable from Ambassador Ricúpero to Brazilian Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil- United States. Access to advanced technology. U.S. initiative on non-proliferation. Letter by President Bush.'

    This cable shows Ambassador Ricúpero’s reaction to Brazil’s inclusion in the list of “validated license.” Ambassador Ricúpero recommended that President Fernando Collor express Brazilian disappointment with this decision in a letter to President George Bush.

  • September 03, 1992

    Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-USA. Access to advanced technology. MTCR. Interview at the Department of State.'

    This cable reports the meeting between Brazilian diplomat Sergio Amaral, Robert Einhorn, Deputy Assistant for Politico-Military Affairs, and Vahn H. Van Diepen, Director of the Office of Weapons Proliferation. Eihorn made clear during the meeting that space programs such as Brazil’s are a source of concern for the US administration because it could use the same technology developed for the SLV to build ballistic missiles.

  • September 25, 1992

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-USA. COCOM. Strategic trade. Mission from USA. Report.'

    On September 14th-15th 1992, The Brazilian government received the US technical mission on strategic trade. Among the issues discussed during the meeting, the most important was Brazil’s export control legislation for sensitive goods and technologies, which was still to be voted on by the Brazilian Congress at the time.

  • February 08, 1993

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-France. Science and technology. Visit of D. José Israel Vargas. Meeting with Minister Hubert Curien.'

    This cable describes the visit of Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology José Israel Vargas to France. Israel Vargas met his French counterpart Minister of Science and Space Hubert Curien. Israel Vargas asked the French minister about the possibility of a French contribution to the Brazilian space program by transferring technology. Curien answered that this is not possible because the French government respects its international commitments regarding the transfer of sensitive technologies.

  • April 04, 1993

    Cable Ambassador Ricupero to the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-United States. Alcântara. Visit of Lockheed representative.'

    This report describes the meeting between the Brazilian diplomat Carmen Moura and Lockheed’s representatives Kenneth Fisher and Noel Horn. The main issue discussed at the meeting was the feasibility of the creation of the joint venture between Lockheed, the Russian Kruchinev and the Brazilian group Monteiro Aranha. The venture would utilize American made satellites from Lockheed, satellite launch vehicles from Kruchinev and the Brazilian launching site at Alcântara Launch Center.

  • April 17, 1993

    Cable from Brazilian Ambassador Ricupero to the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-USA. Sensitive technologies. Non-proliferation. Meeting with the DAS for non-proliferation.'

    On April 1993, Brazilian diplomats met once more with Robert Einhorn, now Deputy Assistant Secretary for Chemical Weapons and Proliferation. Einhorn was mainly concerned with the delay in the approval of the export control legislation in Brazil and wondered if the issue was not losing priority in the Brazilian government’s agenda. He also tried to discourage the development of Brazilian SLV by arguing that it would not be economically advantageous for the country.

  • August 23, 1994

    Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-United States. Space cooperation. Visit of the President of the Brazilian Space Agency to Washington.'

    This cable reports the visit of Gylvan Meira Filho, President of the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), to the Brazilian embassy in Washington. Meira Filho went to the US to meet with NASA’s officials to discuss the signature of a framework agreement between the two space agencies. The other objectives of the President of the AEB were to identify potential partners for Brazilian space activities and to signal the agency’s commitment with the MTCR’s norms.

  • February 12, 1996

    Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-United States. Brazilian space program. Visit of the chairman of CTA to Brazil.'

    This document describes the Computer Technology Associates’ (CTA) interest in investing in Brazil's space sector. In a scheduled visit to Brasília, Tom Velez, CEO at CTA, would discuss his company’s interest in producing 20 communication satellites using Brazilian technology and construction of the proper infrastructures to launch these satellites from CLA.

  • February 28, 1996

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-United States. Visit of the Secretary of State. Non-proliferation.'

    This cable reports the visit of the US Secretary of State Warren Christopher to Brazil. Issues related to non-proliferation dominated the meeting. Christopher emphasized the importance of Brazil strengthening its commitments to non-proliferation norms by signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Brazilian officials expected to improve the dialogue with the US administration after Brazil’s adherence to the MTCR.

  • March 25, 1996

    Cable from Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry

    This document reports the visit of Kenneth Fisher, Lockheed’s representative, to Brasília. During the meeting, Fisher argued that in order for Lockheed to start its operations in Brazil, the company required Brazilian adherence to the Missile Technology Control Regime and the consent of the American government.

  • June 26, 1997

    Cable from the Brazilian Embassy in Washington to Foreign Ministry, 'Outer space. Expansion of the international market for spatial services. Brazilian insertion. Entrepreneurial interest. CLA. ECCO. Considerations.'

    Brazilian diplomat Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima recommends that the Brazilian government should proceed to make the Brazilian space market more attractive for foreign investments. Among Flecha de Lima’s suggestions is the creation of a set of norms to regulate commercial activities at the Alcântara Launch Center.