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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 12, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and Chancellor of FRG H. Kohl

    Gorbachev and Kohl share their impressions of the newly elected George Bush and discuss events in Eastern Europe.

  • September 22, 1989

    Presidential National Security Directive 23, "Untied States Relations with the Soviet Union"

    Presidential directive from George Bush regarding the changing nature of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States and the end of US containment policy.

  • November 21, 1989

    Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney.

    Gorbachev and Mulroney discuss US interference in Eastern Europe and increasing cooperation with Western Europe. They also briefly discuss George Bush's leadership.

  • December 02, 1989

    Notes by A. S. Chernyaev, Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush at Malta Summit

    George H.W. Bush and Gorbachev meet off the coast of Malta in a meeting that came to symbolize the end of the Cold War. While no agreements were concluded, the leaders decided to press ahead in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), as well as in efforts to reduce arsenals of chemical weapons and conventional forces in Europe. Bush also made a number of proposals to advance bilateral relations, including steps to normalize trade relations through the granting of most-favored nation status, efforts to bar Congressional restrictions on credits, and US support for Soviet observer status at the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

  • December 02, 1989

    US Memorandums of Conversation, George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at Malta Summit, 2-3 December 1989

    US transcripts of Bush and Gorbachev's conversations on board the Soviet cruise ship, Maxim Gorky, off the coast of Malta.

  • December 04, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s handwritten Notes on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit at the Meeting of the Warsaw Pact Leaders in Moscow on 4 December

    Unofficial hand-written notes by Rezső Nyers, President of the Hungarian Socialist Party, taken took during a briefing by M. Gorbachev at a Soviet Bloc summit in Moscow on 4 December, just a day after the meeting with President Bush at Malta.

  • December 06, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s Typed Notes to Miklós Németh on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit on 4 December

    An official report by Nyers about the Malta Summit prepared for Prime Minister Miklós Németh.

  • December 06, 1989

    Report of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs [F. Somogyi] for the Council of Ministers about the Meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Pact on 4 December

    Summary of the meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Pact. The document is not signed, but it is highly likely it was authorized by Ferenc Somogyi, Deputy Minister of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was present at the meeting in Moscow.

  • December 11, 1989

    Telegram of the Hungarian Embassy in Moscow about V. M. Falin’s Briefing on the Malta Summit on 11 December

    V.M. Falin, Head of the International Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, provides a briefing about the Malta Summit.

  • February 09, 1990

    Soviet Record of Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and US Secretary of State J. Baker

    Gorbachev and Baker discuss cuts in strategic arms and conventional forces, focusing on air-based and sea-based cruise missiles.

  • April 20, 1990

    Record of Conversation between Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs V. P. Karpov and US Secretary of State J. Baker

    Karpov and Baker discuss negotiations for reductions to strategic arms, focusing on issues with the range for air-based cruise missiles and sea-based cruise missiles.

  • May 16, 1990

    CPSU CC Memo with extract of Politburo Protocol #187 of 16 May 1990 and other attachments

    Memo concerns a directive for the discussions with US Secretary of State James Baker between May 16 and 19, 1990 in Moscow. There are also attachments concerning the quantity of warheads , cooperation, and the armed forces of the US and USSR.

  • August 23, 1990

    Report, Assistant Head of the International Division of the CC CPSU, 'On the Issue of Humanitarian Aid by the US to Lithuania'

    Report describing a possible resolution in the US Congress to send humanitarian aid to Lithuania to support the movement there to separate from the Soviet Union.

  • October 26, 1990

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and the Chairman of the Spanish Government, Felipe González in Madrid

    Gorbachev and Gonzalez discuss the positive improvement of East-West relations and the changes happening in the Soviet republics.

  • November 08, 1990

    Record of a Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and the US Secretary of State, J. Baker in Moscow

    Baker and Gorbachev discuss public opinion of the recent improvement in relations between the Soviet Union and the United States, as well as Saddam Hussein's recent invasion of Kuwait.

  • May 21, 1991

    CPSU CC Report, 21 May 1991

    This report deals with the political crisis in Ethiopia and Eritrea. It also concerns Soviet plans to settle the conflict.

  • November 25, 1991

    Memo, US Proposals Concerning Limited Non-Nuclear Space Defense and Missile Attack Warning System

    Memo on Soviet-American consultations in Washington between November 25 and 27, 1991. The American side proposed discussion of limited non-nuclear missile defense and early warning systems, but the Soviet side refused to be drawn into lengthy discussions. The US also rejected the Soviet proposal to create joint missile attack warning systems.

  • January 07, 1992

    The South Korean Passenger Aircraft Incident (1983)

    V.A. Martynov reviews Soviet archival sources on the shoot down of the Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in 1983.

  • 1996

    Excerpts from Recollections by the Former Soviet Ambassador in North Korea Aleksandr Kapto

    Aleksandr Kapto reflects on the Soviet Union's normalization of relations with South Korea, and the consequential fallout in relations between North Korea and the USSR. According to Kapto, North Korea threatened to develop nuclear weapons and withdraw from the NPT as a result of Soviet-South Korean rapprochement.

  • April, 2004

    KGB Active Measures in Southwest Asia in 1980-82

    Materials provided by former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin to CWIHP, following the publication of the Working Paper No. 40, "The KGB in Afghanistan." As with all Mitrokhin’s notes, his compilation on Soviet “active measures” in South and Southwest Asia is based on other smuggled-out notes and was prepared especially for CWIHP. Please read the Notes on Sources for information on the nature and limitations of these documents.