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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October, 1981

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Senior Advisors Following the Israeli Attack on Osirak

    Saddam Hussein discusses the Israeli air strike against the Iraqi reactor at Osirak, explaining why the attack was expected and his reasons for pursuing nuclear weapons development.

  • October 01, 1981

    Saddam and Senior Iraqi Officials Discussing the Conflict with Iran, Iraqi Targets and Plans, a Recent Attack on the Osirak Reactor, and Various Foreign Countries

    Meeting of top Iraqi officials to discuss the ongoing war with Iran and Israeli air strikes.

  • October 27, 1981

    Report on the Results of the Visit to the USSR by the Palestine Liberation Organization Delegation

    The meeting between the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Soviet Union addresses the United States imposition of imperialistic policy in the Middle East. PLO head Yasser Arafat believes that the United States, Israeli, and Western European agreements at Camp David will negatively impact Palestinians and other Arab states and must be overturned. The Soviet Union responds by restating the need for unity in the Middle East.

  • December 07, 1981

    Letter from Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan

    Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon writes to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to thank him for his hospitality while Sharon was visiting South Africa. He extends an invitation for Malan to visit Israel and hopes he will be able to sign a Memorandum of Understanding when he next visits South African in March 1982.

  • April 26, 1982

    Letter from South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon

    South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan writes to Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon to thank him for his hospitality to the South African delegation during their visit to Israel. Malan thanks Sharon for "your clear and grave concern over the soviet expansionism in Southern African." He also discusses the signing of a new Memorandum of Understanding.

  • July, 1982

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE-4-82, 'Nuclear Proliferation Trends Through 1987'

    With proliferation becoming a “greater threat to US interests over the next five years,” intelligence analysts believed that the “disruptive aspect of the proliferation phenomenon will constitute the greater threat to the United States.” While the estimators saw “low potential” for terrorist acquisition of nuclear weapons, the likelihood of terrorist/extortionist hoaxes was on the upswing. Significant portions of the NIE are excised, especially the estimate of Israel’s nuclear arsenal and its impact in the Middle East. Nevertheless, much information remains on the countries of greatest concern: Iraq and Libya in the Near East, India and Pakistan in South Asia, Brazil and Argentina in Latin America, and the Republic of South Africa, as well as those of lesser concern: Iran, Egypt, Taiwan and the two Koreas.

  • November 09, 1982

    Information from the Bulgarian Communist Party Regarding the visit of the Secretary General of the Communist Party of Honduras – Rigoberto Padilla

    Summary of recent developments in the formation of a unified leftist movement in Honduras lead by the country’s communist party, in an attempt to counter the “imperial” influence of the USA. The text suggests that various pro-communist movements within Central Latin America have formed, and have started to cooperate with the intent to create a network. The Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) have played most prominent role in this endeavor. The Honduras Communist party has worked internally in the direction of creating a strong consolidated left wing movement. The document mentions future plans for mutual cooperation between the Bulgarian Communist Party and the Honduras Communist Party.

  • February 18, 1983

    Letter from South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens

    South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan writes to Moshe Arens to congratulate him on his appointment as Israeli Minister of Defense.

  • March 02, 1983

    Letter from South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to former Israeli Defence Minister Ariel Sharon

    South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan writes to Ariel Sharon to express his regret that he had resigned from his post as Israeli Minister of Defense.

  • March 11, 1983

    Letter from Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens to South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan

    Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens writes a short note to South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan thanking him for his letter of congratulations.

  • March 30, 1983

    CIA Report, 'New Information on South Africa’s Nuclear Program and South African-Israeli Nuclear and Military Cooperation' (redacted)

    CIA report summaries new information on Israel-South African nuclear cooperation. According to the report, South Africa formerly launched its weapons program in 1973, and paused it in 1979 following the international discovery of the Kalahari nuclear test site. Military cooperation between South Africa and Israel is believed to be extensive, with continual contact between personnel and the large-scale sale of arms. Aside from the South African sale of depleted uranium to Israel in the mid-1970s, the CIA had no hard evidence of nuclear cooperation between the two.

  • April, 1983

    Draft letter from South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens

    South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan writes to new Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens expressing the hope that relations with Israel may be strengthened and expanded under his tenure. Malan express concern about the military trade imbalance, stating that "it is of such a proportion that my government must of needs consider alternatives."

  • April 07, 1983

    Letter from Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens to South African Defense Minister Magnus Malan (redacted)

    In this redacted letter, Israeli Minister of Defense Moshe Arens writes to South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan with concerns about difficulties with a project and South Africa's concerns about achieving a reciprocal balance of trade between the two countries.

  • April 12, 1983

    Letter from Israeli Defense Force Chief of General Staff Rafael Eitan to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan

    Rafael Eitan writes to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to inform him that he is no longer IDF Chief of General Staff.

  • April 20, 1983

    Letter from Former Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan

    Ariel Sharon writes to South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan thanking him for his letter.

  • May 18, 1983

    Letter from South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan to Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens

    South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan writes to Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens regarding the imbalance of military trade between Israel and South Africa.

  • November 08, 1984

    Memorandum, Chief of the South African Military Intelligence Service to Chief of the SADF on visit to Israel

    Memo from the head of the South African Military Intelligence Service to the head of the South African Defence Force on security concerning South African personnel, families, documents, information and projects in Israel.

  • September, 1985

    Memorandum, US National Intelligence Council, NIC M 85-10001, 'The Dynamics of Nuclear Proliferation: Balance of Incentives and Constraints'

    The most recent CREST release included this analysis of “The Dynamics of Nuclear Proliferation: Balance of Incentives and Constraints.” The analyst sought to explain why “no additional overt proliferation of nuclear weapons has actually occurred” since the Chinese nuclear test, India had not weaponized while Israel and South Africa had not “taken any action to signal overt possession of nuclear weapons.”

  • November 15, 1986

    Saddam Hussein and His Advisers Discussing Reagan's Speech to the Nation on "Irangate" (Iran-Contra) Revelations (Part 2)

    This file contains a transcript of a meeting led by Saddam Hussein on Ronald Reagan's speech regarding US arms sales to Iran. The participants discuss the arms sales and their rationale, the Iran-Iraq War, the Israeli role in US policy, the Iranian intelligence services, and the state of Iraq's relations with other Arab countries.

  • January 22, 1987

    Iraqi Military Manual on the Tactical Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Vol. 2 Part 2

    Training manual for the Iraqi armed forces describes tactical uses of nuclear weapons during war. The foreword explains that "It is not unlikely that the Iraqi Army will participate in a future Arab-Israeli war, in which the enemy will resort to the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction."