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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • 1962

    The Algerian Problem: Comparison with the Chinese Struggle

    Document comparing the Algerian struggle against France with that of China, arguing that the Algerian struggle cannot be compared, and is much more difficult than that of the Chinese. Asserts that Algerian situation is unique and unprecedented, in terms of colonized struggles, and that the Algerian revolution both represents, more generally, Africa's revolutionary hopes and that it has gained the support of communists, who hope to see Western powers swept from the African continent. Concludes by saying that Algeria's success rests on two factors; the FLN, and foreign support from anti-colonial forces from around the world.

  • January 18, 1962

    Note to the GPRA Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Mission to Cuba'

    Report from Lakhdar Brahimi -- GPRA representative at celebration of Cuban revolution in Havana -- on meeting with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, both of whom express considerable interest in Algerian revolution. Fidel Castro pledges Cuban support, both material and diplomatic, advises Algeria on how to proceed in negotiations with France, and strongly encourages the opening of an Algerian diplomatic mission in Cuba. Brahimi concludes with recommendations on how best to respond to Cuban suggestions and an outline of potential strategic benefits from a diplomatic relationship between two countries.

  • January 31, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ‘Confidential Note to the Heads of Missions and Delegations'

    Confidential note from Algeria's Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the heads of Algeria's diplomatic missions and delegations. The note, written in Cairo on January 31, 1962, focuses on the position that African and Asian countries currently hold at the center of a global struggle between colonialists and neo-colonialists. Points out that Algeria's struggle with France remains a focal point of reference for these countries, and that Algeria must clearly define its foreign policies and positions on international issues.

  • February 10, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the GPRA Ministry of the Interior, ‘Material Assistance’

    1962 letter from Saad Dahlab -- Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs -- to Algeria's Ministry of the Interior, detailing Albania's offer for material support for the Algerian cause.

  • October 16, 1962

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Görög), Report on Algerian Prime Minister Ben Bella’s visit to Cuba

    Chargé d’Affaires ad Interim Erzsébet Görög reports on Algerian Prime Minister Ben Bella’s visit to Havana. Before Ben Bella’s arrival, Cuban press highlighted the common experiences of Algerian and Cuban national independence. Görög describes Ben Bella’s reception at the airport and speeches given by Castro and Ben Bella. For example, Castro used clear Marxist terminology in his remarks while Ben Bella spoke of social progress and the common.

  • May 22, 1963

    Research Memorandum RFE-40 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Acting Secretary, 'A French Nuclear Testing Site in the Pacific? – Plans and Repercussions'

    France’s staging of atmospheric and underground tests in Algeria became increasingly untenable when neighboring African countries protested and even temporarily broke diplomatic relations with Paris. Once Algeria became independent in 1962, French authorities made plans to develop a test site in Polynesia.

  • October 21, 1963

    Flavio Bravo, Deputy Commander of the Cuban Forces in Algeria, to Raúl Castro, Algiers

    Flavio Bravo, deputy commander of the Cuban forces in Algeria, to Raúl Castro, Algiers, pp. 2-3 regarding the situation in Algeria and the behavior of different factions

  • October 23, 1963

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Edgar Faure

    Premier Zhou speaks with French prime minister Edgar Faure about more contacts between China and France. Zhou says that as long as the two states respect each others sovereignty, even if they have different political systems, can still peacefully coexist. They discussed topics relating to Algeria, Soviet Union, and Taiwan.

  • December 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Vladimir Koucky, Secretary of Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz) Central Committee, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Head of Cuba’s National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA), Prague

    The memorandum includes topics discussed between CPCz Secretary Vladimír Koucký and Cuban government official Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Rodríguez lists points of misunderstanding between Cuba and other socialist countries. Discussion topics include Chinese publications in Cuba, Cuba's unique approach to socialist revolution, the proposed nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and building socialism under various conditions (e.g. Islam's role in Algeria), among others. Rodríguez encourages more communication among socialist nations to prevent misunderstanding.

  • December 17, 1963

    Record of the Second Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nasser

    Zhou and Nasser discuss developments in and relations with Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Yemen, and Mauritania, as well as the Non-Aligned Movement and the proposed second Asian-African Conference.

  • December 20, 1963

    Record of Premier Zhou Enlai's Calling on President Nasser

    Zhou and Nasser discuss domestic conditions inside of Egypt, the Sino-Indian border war, and the possibilities for a nuclear weapons free zone in Africa and the Middle East.

  • January 28, 1964

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Representatives of the Algerian National Liberation Front and a Delegation of Legal Professionals

    Mao and visitors from Algeria discuss the Algerian and Chinese revolutions. Mao congratulates the Algerians for their victory against the French and expresses sympathy for the difficulties facing their new nation. He calls for unity between all anti-imperialists, anti-feudalists, and socialists.

  • April 15, 1964

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with an Algerian Cultural Delegation

    Mao and visitors from Algeria discuss the independence and development of their respective countries. The Algerians are eager to learn from Chinese communist policies and history. (Note: the given names of Ding (丁) and Zhou (周) were redacted.)

  • August 06, 1964

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and the Algerian Ambassador to China Mohamed Yala

    Zhou Enlai and Mohamed Yala exchange views on the situation in Vietnam and across Africa, while discussing the Second Asian-African Conference and the Non-Aligned Movement

  • August 17, 1964

    Record of Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Reception of the Algerian Ambassador to China Mohamed Yala

    List of Mao and Yala's main points of discussion, including successful party building, battling imperialism, and suppressing counter-revolutions, as well as record of their conversation regarding the state of Algeria's foreign relations with Vietnam, the US, and others.

  • September 20, 1964

    Remarks from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with an Economic Delegation from the Government of Algeria

    Along with discussing other issues, Mao reminds Algerian government officials that they will need the support of ordinary people to develop their new country and consolidate political power.

  • October 19, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Algeria, 'Reactions to China's Testing of a Nuclear Bomb'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Algeria describes positive responses of foreign government officials stationed in Algeria on China's first nuclear weapons test.

  • December 26, 1964

    Record of Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Reception of the Algerian Militia Delegation

    Mao and Mahmoud Guenez discuss the Algerian revolution, the lessons of the Chinese experience, and developments in the Congo (Léopoldville).

  • March 01, 1965

    Statement of Raul Castro Ruz Pertaining to Cuba’s Minister of Industry, Ernesto "Che" Guevara

    In a conversation between Kliszko and Raul Castro, a referral was made to the position assumed by the Minister of Industry in Cuba, Ernesto Guevara, at the economic seminar of Afro-Asian countries in Algeria in February 1965. Castro stated that he was not prepared to discuss the essence of the issue, e.g. the extent of aid from socialist countries to developing countries, but he felt Guevara's comments were extreme and out-of-place at the seminar.

  • March 30, 1965

    Cable from the Chinese Delegation in Algeria to the Foreign Ministry, 'Main Points of Conversation with Ben Bella '

    Ben Bella shares his views on the revolutionary situation in Africa, particularly developments in the Congo.