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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    Polish document describing the speech given by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This documents is a translation of the version the Soviet leadership sent to the United Polish Workers’ Party for the information of the Polish leadership.

  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    East German Document describing the speech by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This German translation of Brezhnev's speech was circulated to the SED leadership.

  • July 11, 1967

    Polish Record of Meeting of Soviet-bloc leaders (and Tito) in Budapest (excerpts)

    Soviet-bloc leaders discuss fallout of the Six Day War on the Arab countries. The focus particularly on the critical need to support the "progressive" Nasser regime. There is some debate over whether more military aid to the Arabs is necessary or wasteful. The leaders make it clear that they support the existence of the State of Israel and want to avoid getting dragged into a wider Middle East War. The idea of UAR recognition of Israel in exchange for the right of return is floated. Kosygin also gives a summary of his meeting with Johnson in New York.

  • November 09, 1967

    Polish Record of Meeting of Soviet-bloc leaders (and Tito) in Moscow

    Soviet bloc leaders discuss current UN resolutions being devised to deal with the Middle East crisis and unmask U.S. imperialism at work. They talk about the US's desire to forces Nasser out. They also discuss internal Israeli politics, with dovish president Eshkol pitted against hawkish Defense Minister Dayan. They agree that this may be the best chance to make the Arabs realize that a political solution, not a military one, is necessary to solve the Middle East crisis. Tito pushes for a common resolution of all socialist countries, not just the USSR.

  • January 04, 1968

    Report by the Bulgarian Foreign Minister on the Ministerial Meeting in Warsaw on the Situation in the Middle East, 19-21 December 1967

    Ivan Bashev presents a report on the CPSU-organized meeting in Warsaw, where Eastern European government officials exchanged views on the situation in the Middle East. Among the discussed topics were the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Yemeni Civil War, and recent developments in Iraq.

  • 1969

    The Suspension of the Baghdad Pact and the Iraqi-Egyptian Rapprochement

    Report on the British Foreign Secretary's visit to the Middle East and the suspension of the Baghdad Pact.

  • January 24, 1969

    Minutes of Todor Zhivkov – Indira Gandhi Meeting, Delhi

    The two leaders talk about Vietnam, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the situation in Europe.

  • February 03, 1969

    Memorandum for the President [Richard Nixon] from Henry A. Kissinger, 'The Middle East--Some Policy Considerations'

    Kissinger provides Nixon with an overview of achieving a general political settlement in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and different international frameworks for this goal.

  • September 03, 1969

    Minutes of Conversation between the Shah and Nicolae Ceaușescu, Teheran

    The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi spoke with Nicolae Ceaușescu regarding President Nixon's speech in which he talks about disengaging the US from issues that do not concern the US, but also not abandoning allies. The Shah recalled that he told President Nixon long ago to withdraw from Vietnam. The Arab-Israeli conflict was also discussed.

  • February 21, 1971

    The Preparatory Conference of the League of Arabian Gulf Students in Beirut

    Report on a conference of Gulf students and their statement regarding independence efforts in the Arabian Gulf.

  • August 30, 1971

    Meeting between Soviet academic and envoy to Israel, Yevgeni Primakov and Israeli Prime Minister, Golda Meir, 30 August 1971

    Primakov came to hear a concrete offer from Golda on how to push the peace process forward. The Prime Minister was unwilling to go into specifics. Primakov informed Golda that as far as the Soviet Union was concerned there was a linkage between Israeli concessions and immigration of Jews from the Soviet Union. According to Primakov, as long as the Arab-Israeli conflict remained unsettled, the Soviet Union could not be seen as acting against the interests of its Arab allies by allowing unrestricted Jewish immigration from the Soviet Union to Israel.

  • October 15, 1971

    Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and the Shah, Persepolis

    Description of conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi regarding efforts to find a solution to the conflict between Israel and Egypt involving border disputes and the Suez Canal.

  • 1972

    Minutes of the Joint Meeting of the Bulgarian Central Committee, the State Council, and the Council of Ministers, on the Situation in the Middle East

    Todor Zhivkov reports on his recent visit to the Syrian Arab Republic and the Arab Republic of Egypt.

  • April 03, 1972

    Note regarding the Personal Conversation that took place between Nicolae Ceausescu and Anwar El-Sadat, Monday, 3 April 1972, in Cairo

    Nicolae Ceausescu and Anwar El-Sadat discuss foreign policy with relation to Israel, the United States, and the USSR. Sadat discusses future relations with Israel and strategic closure of the Suez Canal.

  • April 06, 1972

    Minutes of Conversation of the Seperate Discussion between Nicolae Ceausescu and Anwar El-Sadat, in Cairo, 6 April 1972 [Excerpts]

    Nicolae Ceausescu and Anwar El-Sadat discuss Egypt's relations with Israel and the new boundaries of Israeli and Arab lands.

  • April 10, 1972

    Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and Abbas Massoudi, Vice-President of the Majlis, Bucharest

    Describes the conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and Abbas Massoudi, Vice-President of the Majlis, regarding the current situation in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Conclusion was that Egypt is ready to sign a treaty, but Israel has not welcomed any recent proposals. Both agreed that it is important for international community to help find solution to conflict.

  • October, 1973

    Letter from Syrian President Hafez al-Assad to GDR State Council Chairman Willi Stoph

    Undated letter from Syrian President Hafez al-Assad to GDR State Council Chairman Willi Stoph requesting support in conflict with Israel

  • October, 1973

    Draft letter from Willi Stoph to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad in response to al-Assad's 6 and 10 October 1973 letters to Stoph

    Draft letter from Willi Stoph to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad condemning Israel's aggression against Syria.

  • October 07, 1973

    Minutes of Prime Minister Meir's Cabinet Meeting, 7 October 1973

  • October 12, 1973

    Verbatim Transcript of the Third Meeting between Prime Minister Trudeau and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai and Trudeau have a wideranging conversation on international politics, covering the Vietnam War, Sino-Japanese relations, Nixon's visit to China, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Arctic circle, and nuclear energy safeguards, among other topics.