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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 04, 1982

    Cuba-Angola Declaration

    A defense of Cuban military intervention in Angola, citing the advance of South African troops in Angolan territory as justifiable cause. Accuses the United States and South Africa of inciting bands of Namibian militia to upset the Cuban presence in Angola. Argues that the presence of Cuban troops in Angola is an agreement between two sovereign governments.

  • October 22, 1983

    South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) President Sam Nujoma's visit to Bulgaria, October 1983

    Notes on a visit by the South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) to Bulgaria in October 1983. The delegation included Namibian politician Sam Nujoma, who discussed the struggle for Namibian independence from South Africa.

  • March 06, 1984

    Message of R.F. Botha to the Governments of the United States, Angola, and Zambia

    Message from R. F. "Pik" Botha declaring that, despite SWAPO incursions into Namibia, South African forces have not retaliated, in order to give the maximum amount of time for Angola to make good on its promise to withdraw its forces. South Africa will, however, maintain a military presence in Namibia while he threat is still there.

  • March 21, 1984

    Letter from C.A. Crocker to R.F. Botha

    Chester Crocker writes to R. F. "Pik" Botha about the importance of not responding to the recent Cuban/Angolan communique. Crocker warns against giving the Cubans an excuse to keep their troops stationed in Namibia, and points out that it is likely a distraction for concessions the Cubans and Angolans are about to make to South Africa and the United States.

  • May 05, 1984

    Telegram to D. Steward From Auret

    Description of a meeting between Angolan and South African delegations, the former being led by Venancio De Moura. Details discussion of troop withdrawal from Namibia, focusing on an "outburst" by De Moura.

  • May 01, 1985

    Letter from R.F. Botha to Lt-Col Manuel Rodrigues

    Letter from R. F. "Pik" Botha to the Angolan Minister of the Interior, decrying the movement of SWAPO militants into South African territory and the Angolan anti-South African propaganda campaign. Urges Angola to end the propaganda and to ensure that SWAPO attacks are not planned or executed from Angolan territory.

  • April 10, 1987

    Memorandum of Conversation between Raúl Castro and Sam Nujoma

    Raúl Castro was Cuba’s minister of defense; Sam Nujoma was the president of SWAPO.

  • April 22, 1988

    Instructions to the Cuban Delegation for the London Meeting, 'Indicaciones concretas del Comandante en Jefe que guiarán la actuación de la delegación cubana a las conversaciones de Luanda y las negociaciones de Londres (22-4-88)'

    Fidel Castro’s instructions for the Cuban delegation to the 3-4 May 1988 London meeting of the delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States to discuss the future of Angola and Namibia.

  • April 23, 1988

    Instructions to the Cuban Delegation for the London Meeting, 'Indicaciones concretas del Comandante en Jefe que guiarán la actuación de la delegación cubana a las conversaciones de Luanda y las negociaciones de Londres (23-4-88)'

    Fidel Castro’s instructions for the Cuban delegation to the 3-4 May 1988 London meeting of the delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States to discuss the future of Angola and Namibia.

  • June 15, 1988

    Report from A.A. Jaquet to SRA, 'Current State of Negotiations between South Africa and Angola'

    Description of the state of Angolan-South African affairs. Discusses recent and upcoming negotiations between Angolan and South African delegations, noting specifically the difficulties of getting the Angolans to accept proposals and to decide on a venue in which to have the talks.

  • June 24, 1988

    Meeting between the Delegations of Angola, Cuba and the United States, 'Conversaciones RPA-Cuba EEUU-RSA'

    Meeting between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia.

  • July, 1988

    Current Relations Between Bulgaria and the South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO)

    An overview of the development of relations between Bulgaria and SWAPO from the late 1970s through the late 1980s. Several visits to Bulgaria from SWAPO (and future Namibian) President Sam Nujoma are mentioned, as are visits from SWAPO's Richard Kapuela, Toivo Ya Toivo, Festus Naholo, and David Merero. Bulgarian Chariman of the State Council, Todor Zhivkov, conducted the meetings with Nujoma. Also mentioned are Bulgarian offers for SWAPO members to come to Bulgaria for education, vacation and medical treatment.

  • July 11, 1988

    Carlos Aldana to Fidel Castro

    Carlos Aldana headed the Cuban delegation at the 11-13 July 1988, New York meeting between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia.

  • July 20, 1988

    Agreement between Angola, Cuba and South Africa, 'Principles for a Peaceful Settlement in Southwestern Africa'

    Lays out the conditions for the withdrawal of foreign forces from Namibia, agreed on by Angola, Cuba, and South Africa.

  • October, 1988

    Meetings between Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States, 'Reuniones para lograr una solución al conflicto de la región del suroeste de Africa' #4-8

    Meetings between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia: Geneva, 2-5 August 1988; Brazzaville, 24-26 August 1988; Brazzaville 7-9 September 1988; Brazzaville 26-29 September 1988; New York, 6-9 October 1988.

  • October 06, 1988

    Meetings between Angola, Cuba, the United States and South Africa, 'Reunión Cuatripartita Angola/Cuba/EEUU/RSA, Nueva York, Octubre 6-9 de 1988'

    Meeting between delegations of Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States about the future of Angola and Namibia

  • April 02, 1989

    SWAPO Department of Information and Publicity, Statement on Cease-fire Violations in Namibia, Luanda

    Statement by Angolan authorities on military clashes between South African and SWAPO troops. Argues that South African claims of SWAPO instigation are false and misleading, and that the engagements were initiated by the South African military. Further, states that South Africans have been pursuing an anti-SWAPO political and military campaign, fighting and harassing SWAPO and SWAPO supporters.

  • April 09, 1989

    Mount Etjo Declaration, Namibia

    Declaration reaffirming the parties' (those of Angola, Cuba, and South Africa) commitment to a peaceful resolution in Southwest Africa. Also urges the most rapid deployment of the (United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) possible.

  • April 26, 1989

    Letter from the President of South Africa P. W. Botha to the President of Zambia Requesting Pressure on SWAPO to Withdraw Armed Forces from Namibia

    Letter from South African President P. W. Botha to Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda asserting that SWAPO is the aggressor in excalation tensions between SWAPO and South African forces, and that South Africa is responding in measured and restrained ways. Asks for Zambia's assistance in convincing SWAPO to cease hostilities.

  • April 28, 1989

    Joint Press Statement on Namibia

    Press release describing a tripartite meeting between delegations from Angola, South Africa, and Cuba about troop withdrawal from Namibia. South African and SWAPO forces are restricted to their respective bases.