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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • July 16, 1961

    Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Decision with respect to Several Issues Concerning Strengthening Atomic Energy Industrial Infrastructure

    In order to rapidly strengthen its atomic energy industry, the Central Committee proclaims that China must dedicate further resources exclusively to nuclear-related activities. For this purpose, the report calls for the mobilization of students, scientists, public health officials, and industrial laborers; and the provision of factories, equipment, medicine, and hospitals.

  • June 19, 1962

    Fifth Official Meeting Between the Delegation of the Albanian Labor Party and the Delegation of the Chinese Communist Party

    Albanian leaders Hysni Kapo and Ramiz Alia meet with a Chinese delegation to discuss industrialization in Communist countries, specificallyAlbania's five-year plan. The Albanians complain about being excluded from international meetings of the socialist countries. The Chinese update the Albanians on their position of supporting Jiang Jieshi over the "Two Chinas" objective of the United States and their relations with other countries throughout Asia, while encouraging the Albanians to reach out to the Muslim nations of Africa.

  • August 24, 1962

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador in North Korea Vasily Moskovsky and North Korean Foreign Minister Pak Seong-cheol

    The North Korean Foreign Minister discusses with the Soviet Ambassador the nuclear hegemony of the US and their ability to control nuclear proliferation.

  • September 04, 1962

    Research Memorandum RSB-152 from Roger Hilsman to the Secretary, 'Soviet Tactics in Talks on the Non-Diffusion of Nuclear Weapons'

    Before the words “nuclear nonproliferation” entered official discourse, the term “non-diffusion” (or “non-dissemination”) of nuclear weapons was used routinely. In part stemming from the negotiations over Berlin, during 1962-1963 the Kennedy administration held talks with allies and adversaries on the possibility of a non-diffusion agreement which included Germany. In light of a recent Soviet proposal, INR veteran Soviet expert Sonnenfeldt explained why Moscow had moved away from earlier proposals singling out West Germany and was focusing on the general applicability of a non-diffusion agreement.

  • October 01, 1962

    Research Memorandum RFE-44 from Roger Hilsman to Acting Secretary, 'Japan’s Reaction to a Chinese Communist Nuclear Detonation'

    This “Limited Distribution” report on possible Japanese reactions did not anticipate that a test would cause basic changes in US-Japan security relations or in Tokyo’s general approach to nuclear weapons.

  • June 23, 1963

    National Intelligence Estimate NIE 4-63, 'Likelihood and Consequences of a Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Systems'

    This NIE comes to the general conclusions that “there will not be a widespread proliferation of nuclear weapons over the next 10 years” and discusses programs in various countries (Israel, China, Sweden, India, West Germany, Japan, etc.) This copy includes newly declassified references to the Israeli nuclear weapons program, including the conclusion that “the Israelis, unless deterred by outside pressure, will attempt to produce a nuclear weapon some time in the next several years.”

  • August 02, 1963

    Letter, Homi Bhabhi to Jawaharlal Nehru

    Homi Bhabha writes to Prime Minister Nehru to convey that the Chinese nuclear test will be of no military significance and Chinese possession of a few bombs will not make any difference to the military situation. In order to counter the Chinese bomb’s psychological-political impact, Dr. Bhabha argues that India needs to be in a position to produce the bomb within few months.

  • August 11, 1963

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and José Ancizar Lopez

    Zhou Enlai speaks with head of the Colombian House of Representatives delegation to China, José Ancizar Lopez, about an initiative to establish a nuclear weapons free zone in Latin America. Lopez agrees that nuclear weapons should not be used, but nuclear energy for medicine and other peaceful uses is good. Zhou calls on Latin America and Africa to take the initiative on preventing the use of nuclear weapons.

  • August 12, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice Premier Chen Yi, and Pakistani Ambassador Raza

    Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Ambassador Raza coordinate China and Pakistan's strategies toward the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. They also discuss Sino-American relations.

  • September 13, 1963

    Letter from the worker of Donetsk metallurgy plant Nikolai Bychkov to Ukrainian Republican Committee of Peace Protection, Donetsk

    This letter is just an example of similar numerous letters which were sent to Kiev on the occasion of signing Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) in 1963. In these letters the Ukrainian teachers, workers, collective farmers wrote about their happiness because of partial prohibiting of the nuclear tests. At the same time these letters condemn China, whose relations with USSR had deteriorated by that time and who prepared to perform its first atmospheric nuclear test which broke PTBT regime.

  • December 20, 1963

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Reporters in Cairo

    Premier Zhou and Chen Yi answer questions from reporters in Cairo. Zhou and Chen were asked about issues such as their visit to Arab and African countries, China's support for national liberation movements in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the United Arab Republic (Egypt) and Sri Lanka's perspective of the Sino-Indian border conflict, the purpose of the Chinese delegation's visit to Arab and African countries, issues that will be discussed in potential second Bandung Conference, the Sino-Soviet split, and the Pakistani national movement. Zhou also explains why China opposed the ban on nuclear test treaty.

  • March 08, 1964

    Record of Premier Zhou Enlai's Conversations with the President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah

    Over the course of three conversations, Zhou and Nkrumah discuss African regionalism, China's position at the United Nations and its relations with the United States, non-alignment, decolonization, developments in the Congo, and an African nuclear-weapons-free zone.

  • August 22, 1964

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Foreign Guests Who Visited China after Attending the 10th World Conference Against the Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs

    Mao meets with guests from different countries who oppose the use of nuclear weapons. Among other topics such as the the Chinese Civil War, they discuss American aggression, the plight of African Americans, and anti-imperialist struggles around the world.

  • September 21, 1964

    Letter from Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong on the Nuclear Explosion

    Zhou Enlai offers multiple dates on which the first nuclear test explosion may take place and asks Mao Zedong for his preference.

  • October 11, 1964

    Letter from Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, et al., on the Nuclear Explosion

    Zhou Enlai notifies Mao Zedong and other prominent political and military officials that preparations have been made to detonate the explosion between October 15 and 20, depending on weather conditions. Attention is also given to the high level of secrecy surrounding the explosion, methods of data collection, publicity, and the political consequences of the explosion.

  • October 16, 1964

    Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China

    The Government of China announces its successful nuclear test but states that it will follow a no first use policy and in fact desires for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons.

  • October 17, 1964

    Cable from the Military Attache of the Chinese Embassy in Cuba, 'The Political Department of Cuba's Military Congratulates China on its Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Military Attache of the Chinese Embassy in Cuba noting a positive response of Lt. Hector, the Cultural Head of the Army Political Department, on China's nuclear weapons test.

  • October 17, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in North Korea, 'Reactions to China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in North Korea describing positive responses of North Korean officials and Vietnamese diplomats in North Korea regarding China's first nuclear weapons test.

  • October 18, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia, 'Reactions to China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia describing positive responses from Indonesian government officials and foreign government officials in Indonesia regarding China's nuclear test.

  • October 18, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'India's Reactions to China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India describing mixed responses of Indian government officials and public regarding China's successful nuclear test.