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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 14, 1961

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Segni

    Report on the imbalance between nuclear and conventional weapons in NATO’s defense program. The Allied powers have reduced their production of planes and ships in favor of nuclear weapons development, which worries Alessandrini because conventional weapons have not decreased in importance since the start of the Cold War.

  • June 17, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Atlantic Alliance's strategy - National military way of thinking'

    Summary of NATO’s nuclear defense strategy, stressing the importance of utilizing both conventional and nuclear weapons and refraining from using more nuclear power than is absolutely necessary to combat Soviet aggression.

  • August 23, 1961

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO to the Minister of Defense, 'General Norstad's petition to the Council'

    Italian official Pinna Caboni summarizes the military report delivered by General Norstad regarding the threat of attack on Berlin, evidenced by the presence of Soviet troops near the city. According to General Norstad, immediate action must be taken to mitigate the threat of nuclear attack on Berlin in the interests of Germany as well as all of Western Europe.

  • October 17, 1961

    Report by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Rossi, 'The military situation of the armed forces of the Soviet bloc and of its alleged allies and those of NATO countries and their allies'

    A report on the discussions which occurred at a meeting of the Atlantic Council, during which the relative military powers of the Soviet Block and Western Block were compared. The different positions and threats posed to various NATO nations were also discussed. Finally, the report laid out plans for nuclear, submarine, and aerial weapons development to ensure that the Soviet Block’s military power never exceeds that of the Western block.

  • December 18, 1961

    Message by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP), 'Alessandrini's (RICA) report to MAE Segni'

    Report on the growing threat of a Soviet blockade of Berlin, the focal point also of a meeting of the Atlantic Council in Paris in December, 1961.

  • May 19, 1962

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Ross to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of accepting the terms of nuclear warfare proposed at a NATO meeting in Athens. Whether or not to respond to a Soviet nuclear attack with an atomic weapon of equal strength was debated at the meeting, as well as the role that conventional weapons would play in such a conflict.

  • December 04, 1962

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Italy's permanent representative to NATO Alessandrini writes to PM Andreotti in preparation for the upcoming Paris summit. He shares general remarks about the state of the alliance and current issues in international relations focusing on the German question, Cuba, and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • 1963

    Report, 'Point 2. NATO situation'

    Discussion of the relative roles of the United States, Great Britain, Germany and France in NATO and a proposal to revise the role of NATO as the threat of a Soviet attack increases.

  • January 03, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    This report addresses the failure of NATO to meet the agreed-upon threshold for conventional weapons buildup.

  • May 10, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Alessandrini's report to PM Piccioni and Minister of Defense Andreotti discusses current questions of defense that will be brought up in the upcoming Ottawa session. According to him, NATO should focus on its internal organization and in particular, developing a common nuclear force, despite the technical and political challenges of such project.

  • May 10, 1963

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    In view of the Ottawa meeting, Alessandrini analyzes the current situation of NATO's conventional forces, in accordance with the new drastic measures which were formulated - but not yet validated - by the Council. Alessandrini stresses that the problems related to armaments - both nuclear and conventional - can't be solved by "separated and independent" solutions. Furthermore, the document deals with the risk that NATO could define interests of "priority defense" and of "minor defense", using an approach that could probably ignore - for example - the interests of Italy.

  • June 28, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni

    In this report to Foreign Minister Piccioni, Alessandrini addresses the key problems with NATO, focusing on the lack of internal cohesion . He names the German problem as the most important issue of the alliance, but touches also on De Gaulle's politics and European integration.

  • July 09, 1963

    Report by Ambassador Quaroni to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni, 'General De Martino's candidacy and Standing Group'

    Italian Ambassador to London, Quaroni, analyzes the internal situation of NATO, and Italy's standing that he considers very weak. He describes the situation as "total Cold War" between US and France, where Kennedy and De Gaulle have different visions for the future.

  • December 04, 1963

    Message by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP), 'NATO strategy'

    The document states what the Italian Embassies in Washington and in London reported to MAE on 30th November 1963, about NATO strategy.

  • December 10, 1963

    Memorandum by Ministry of Defense, 'NATO strategy'

    This correspondence between the Ministry of Defense and embassies in Washington and London discusses the current state of NATO's (nuclear strategy) and the different views held by France, Great Britain, Germany and United States.

  • 1964

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Although the MLF topic isn't on the Atlantic Council's agenda, it will be nevertheless one of the topics discussed during the bilateral conversations. The document reports the current situation, Italy's position, the Italian diplomatic action and the viewpoint of other main Allies. There are also 4 attachments (the European clause; an hypothetical MLF base in Italy; the timing of the project; a possible Italian financial commitment).

  • April 29, 1964

    Briefing by Permanent Representative to NATO, 'Multilateral Force Project'

    " The document is part of a broad quantity of material prepared by the Italian Permanent Delegation at the Atlantic Council in Paris, and forwarded from Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense). It is a group of several briefings (8 in total), drafted by the RICA, in view of the next Atlantic Council meeting at ministerial level, which will take place in L'Aja. The briefings are divided according to the topics that will be addressed in that meeting. This document sums up the state of the negotiations for a Multilateral Force. The negotiations are now in their 7°month. Here there is a focus on Italy's position, which puts Italy in its current state of isolation with regards to this project. The document presents various reflections about the future prospects of this project."

  • June 16, 1964

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Ross to Minister of Defense, '32nd meeting of the Military Committee - SHAPEX 64 - Conversation with General Taylor'

    Rossi details the activities that have taken place in Paris during the week from June 8th, to June 13th.

  • November, 1964

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NATO's nuclear weapons'

    The memo deals with the reorganization of political control and of the "command chain" with respect to NATO's nuclear deterrent (opinions of the UK and France, Italian and German criticism). There are 3 attachments: 1) Multilateral Nuclear Force. Italian stance with regards to British proposals (2 pages); 2) British position on Multilateral Force - Message from Washington on 4th December (5 pages); 3) Reorganization of the Atlantic nuclear deterrent (12 pages).

  • November 21, 1964

    Telespresso by Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Ministry of Defense, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force. British proposals'

    The document consists of the transcript of what has been told to the Italian Embassy in London (Cattani), November 20th about British remarks with regard to Atlantic Nuclear Force project. The document describes the features of the project, reports the disadvantages that could derive from the proposal and the British doubts about that. In addition, the document underlines the goals and the features that - from the Italian point of view - the MLF project could and should have.