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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 17, 1961

    Report by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Rossi, 'The military situation of the armed forces of the Soviet bloc and of its alleged allies and those of NATO countries and their allies'

    A report on the discussions which occurred at a meeting of the Atlantic Council, during which the relative military powers of the Soviet Block and Western Block were compared. The different positions and threats posed to various NATO nations were also discussed. Finally, the report laid out plans for nuclear, submarine, and aerial weapons development to ensure that the Soviet Block’s military power never exceeds that of the Western block.

  • January 31, 1962

    Research Memorandum REU-25 from Roger Hilsman to Mr. Kohler, 'European Attitudes on Independent Nuclear Capability'

    Concerns about the credibility of US nuclear deterrence generated Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) General Lauris Norstad’s proposal for a NATO-controlled medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) force. This lengthy report represented INR’s assessment of “present and future European interest in national or multinational nuclear weapons capabilities,” including the MRBM proposal, and the extent to which an “enhancement of NATO's nuclear role” could “deter national or multinational European nuclear weapons programs.”

  • May 19, 1962

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Ross to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of accepting the terms of nuclear warfare proposed at a NATO meeting in Athens. Whether or not to respond to a Soviet nuclear attack with an atomic weapon of equal strength was debated at the meeting, as well as the role that conventional weapons would play in such a conflict.

  • November 12, 1962

    Hungarian Socialist Workers Party First Secretary János Kádár’s Account of His Visit to Moscow to the HSWP Central Committee

    János Kádár presents on his diplomatic trip to Moscow to the Hungarian Central Committee. Kádár first places the Cuban Missile Crisis in context. This includes describing the success of the Cuban revolution, US aggression towards Cuba, and the Cuban-Soviet military and defense agreement, which ultimately spawned the US’s unilateral military mobilization. Kádár then describes the Soviet Union’s strategy to achieve two goals: protect the Cuban revolution and preserve peace. He notes that Cuba and the Soviet Union disagree about how the crisis was resolved, but asks the congress of workers to show complete support of Soviet actions and successes.

  • December 04, 1962

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Italy's permanent representative to NATO Alessandrini writes to PM Andreotti in preparation for the upcoming Paris summit. He shares general remarks about the state of the alliance and current issues in international relations focusing on the German question, Cuba, and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • 1963

    Report, 'Point 2. NATO situation'

    Discussion of the relative roles of the United States, Great Britain, Germany and France in NATO and a proposal to revise the role of NATO as the threat of a Soviet attack increases.

  • January 03, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    This report addresses the failure of NATO to meet the agreed-upon threshold for conventional weapons buildup.

  • January 28, 1963

    Bulgarian Consulate, Istanbul (Karadimov), Cable to Foreign Ministry

    Bulgarian General Consul in Istanbul Dimo Karadimov reports to the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry news of new ballistic missiles in Turkey. Specifically, Karadimov notes that the US military will replace Jupiter missiles with Polaris missiles within the year. Karadimov cannot confirm NATO's involvement.

  • February 08, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Defense Policy'

    These Council of Ministers minutes report on the meeting between Prime Minister De Quay and several of his state secretaries with NATO Secretary-General Stikker, who gave an outline of what was still called a ‘NATO Nuclear Force’. The prime minister responded positively to the plan but indicated the incoming cabinet would have to take a final decision. In the discussion, Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns comments on the attitude of President De Gaulle and points out that NATO and EEC matters ought to be viewed separately.

  • February 13, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to Piccioni concerning NATO MLF consultations

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini to Deputy Prime Minister on NATO consultations, positions of the members of the Alliance and Nassau agrrements for the creation of a multilateral nuclear force. In particular, the paper discusses the points of view of SACEUR L. Lemnitzer and US Ambassor to NATO Finletter.

  • March 15, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Atlantic Nuclear Weapons Plan'

    The Council discusses the danger of the German Federal Republic moving to acquire an independent nuclear force. Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns regrets the American focus on the Germans at the expense of the British. Resistance from the French regarding the plan is not expected.

  • March 17, 1963

    Bulgarian Embassy, Athens (Minchev), Cable to Foreign Ministry

    Bulgarian Ambassador to Greece Nikolai Minchev relays recent newspaper reports to the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Minchev summarizes a recent NATO meeting in Athens where NATO staff and Turkish and Greek military personal discussed security in the two nations and the Balkan region as a whole.

  • April 17, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on French Position on MLF

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on objections by French representativ to NATO MLF.

  • May 10, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Alessandrini's report to PM Piccioni and Minister of Defense Andreotti discusses current questions of defense that will be brought up in the upcoming Ottawa session. According to him, NATO should focus on its internal organization and in particular, developing a common nuclear force, despite the technical and political challenges of such project.

  • May 10, 1963

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    In view of the Ottawa meeting, Alessandrini analyzes the current situation of NATO's conventional forces, in accordance with the new drastic measures which were formulated - but not yet validated - by the Council. Alessandrini stresses that the problems related to armaments - both nuclear and conventional - can't be solved by "separated and independent" solutions. Furthermore, the document deals with the risk that NATO could define interests of "priority defense" and of "minor defense", using an approach that could probably ignore - for example - the interests of Italy.

  • June 07, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Council in Ottawa and Visit to President Kennedy'

    The Council of Ministers report on the NATO council meeting in Ottawa, which Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns and Minister of Defense Visser attended. Luns spoke privately with President Kennedy about the attitude of the French and the possibility of an independent German nuclear arsenal. Visser visited weapons centers in the United States and emphasizes the need to accept American leadership in the defense of Europe.

  • June 28, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni

    In this report to Foreign Minister Piccioni, Alessandrini addresses the key problems with NATO, focusing on the lack of internal cohesion . He names the German problem as the most important issue of the alliance, but touches also on De Gaulle's politics and European integration.

  • July 05, 1963

    Bulgarian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Information Report on NATO

    On 5 July 1963 the Bulgarian Ministry of Internal Affairs completed an information report on NATO's activity during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In the report, the ministry outlines detailed espionage carried out by NATO agents. According to the report, the NATO Military Intelligence Services provided instructions for NATO member-states' military attaches stationed in Warsaw Pact countries and agents they could get to cooperate with them. Agents were to observe and report specific military intelligence collecting in Warsaw Pact countries -- arms deliveries, missile sites, military movements, etc. The report also includes explanation of how the attaches carried out their intelligence gathering -- reading official press, speaking in Russian and misrepresenting themselves as Russian, etc . The Bulgarian Interior Ministry notes that Western governments were well-informed of Bulgarian military structures -- including exact formations and secret designations.

  • July 09, 1963

    Report by Ambassador Quaroni to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni, 'General De Martino's candidacy and Standing Group'

    Italian Ambassador to London, Quaroni, analyzes the internal situation of NATO, and Italy's standing that he considers very weak. He describes the situation as "total Cold War" between US and France, where Kennedy and De Gaulle have different visions for the future.

  • August 02, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Position Regarding NATO Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns gives the new Marijnen cabinet a sketch of the multilateral NATO nuclear force situation so far. He is now of the opinion that the Netherlands should not join a multilateral NATO nuclear force. Minister of Defense De Jong says the Dutch government will need to take a position near the end of the year.