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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • April 06, 1989

    Note about the Meeting between Hu Qili and Herbert Naumann

    Hu Qili describes ongoing economic reforms in China. As for political reform, Hu indicates that China wants "to further unfold socialist democracy and perfect the judicial system."

  • April 17, 1989

    National Intelligence Daily for Monday, 17 April 1989

    The CIA’s National Intelligence Daily for 17 April 1989 describes the latest developments in China.

  • April 28, 1989

    National Intelligence Daily for Friday, 28 April 1989

    The CIA's National Intelligence Daily for 28 April 1989 describes the latest developments in Lebanon, Iran, China, Vietnam, the Soviet Union, Paraguay, Nicaragua, Hungary, and New Zealand.

  • May 15, 1989

    Diary of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 15 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze diary entry, describing his arrival in Beijing, and the student demonstrations and strikes going on the city, including some of their most characteristic slogans.

  • May 15, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 15 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze notes covering a discussion between Gorbachev and Yang Shangkun, during the beginning of the Soviet visit to China. Gorbachev and Shangkun compare economic growth rates and initiatives in China and the Soviet Union, and Gorbachev talks about perestroika. Later in the day, Gorbachev explains his impressions that the Chinese are interested in normalizing relations with the Soviet Union, and are worried about the protests occurring in Tiananmen Square. The Soviet delegation connects their visit to China to the protests.

  • May 16, 1989

    Diary of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 16 May 1989

    Diary entry of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, describing a visit to Tiananmen Square, and the "democracy-thirsty" students in a hunger strike at the square. Also remarks on the normalization of Soviet-Chinese relations, marked by a meeting between Gorbachev, Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang.

  • May 16, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 16 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze notes on discussions between Gorbachev and Li Peng, covering a wide range of foreign policy issues for the two countries. Li Peng discusses China's relations with the US, Japan, India, and the DPRK. Both sides discuss the demilitarization of the Sino-Soviet border. Concludes with a note on the hunger strike in Tiananmen Square.

  • May 16, 1989

    Excerpts from Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Zhao Ziyang

    Zhao Ziyang and Gorbachev discuss political and economic changes ongoing in China.

  • May 16, 1989

    Excerpts from the Meeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping

    The Chinese version of the record of conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping. Deng provides a historical overview of China's relations with the Soviet Union and other countries.

  • May 16, 1989

    Meeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping (Excerpts)

    Gorbachev and Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping discuss Sino-Soviet relations as well as relations with the United States.

  • May 17, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 17 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze notebook, covering May 17 of USSR trip to China to normalize relations. Notes a speech by Gorbachev at China's National People's Congress, before moving to the call to cancel a planned press conference because there are "200 thousand [students] around us...This is a revolution." Some press conference is then held, and Gorbachev's comments are summarized. The notes conclude with Gorbachev's comments on the student protesters.

  • May 17, 1989

    Diary of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 17 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze diary entry, describing negotiations between China and a USSR delegation. The negotiations cover border issues, Soviet assistance in improving relations between India and Nepal, and Afghanistan, among other issues. Following the negotiations, Mamaladze describes protesters, "two hundred thousand strong," and notes that the movement has grown beyond just students.

  • May 18, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 18 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze notebook from May 18 of visit to China. Describes a dinner in Shanghai.

  • May 18, 1989

    Diary of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 18 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze diary entry describing his time in Shanghai during negotiations to normalize Soviet-Chinese relations. Notes that Shanghai, like Beijing, "is in the power of the student strikers," and speculates that the student strike is "seemingly heated up by [the Soviet delegation's] visit."

  • May 18, 1989

    National Intelligence Daily for Thursday, 18 May 1989

    The CIA's National Intelligence Daily for 18 May 1989 describes the latest developments in China, the Soviet Union, Ethiopia, Panama, El salvador, Venezuela, West Germany, Bolivia, Poland, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Philippines.

  • May 19, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 19 May 1989

    Notes from Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, covering discussions between Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang, and Viktor Karpov. The Chinese side discusses Deng's role against the student unrest going on in China, and the punishment of protestors attempting to storm the building of the All Chinese Congress of People's Representatives.

  • May 23, 1989

    Information Note of Romanian Embassy from Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Information Note of Romanian Embassy from Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the Chinese position on Gorbachev’s visit to China and the resumption of Sino-Soviet relations as indicative of future closer bilateral relations between the two countries

  • May 26, 1989

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the possible power struggle within the Chinese government and attitudes towards the demands of the students

  • May 29, 1989

    Statement of the Communist Party of Italy

    This document dated May 29, 1989, is a statement by the Italian Communist Party in which it expresses solidarity for Chinese students, workers and popular forces who are demanding greater democracy.

  • May 29, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 443 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Ambassador Eduard Saul recommends that Czechoslovakia more actively support the Chinese Communist Party.