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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 25, 1953

    Draft Instructions to Chuikov and Semyonov

    In March 1953, Moscow had declined Ulbricht’s request for tightening up the sector border in Berlin, then the major loophole in the SED leadership’s efforts to seal off East Germany. In the aftermath of the demonstrations and unrest in Berlin, the SED leadership apparently tried to reintroduce the idea of increased “border security” in Berlin. Eager to salvage whatever was left of its political position as a champion of German unity, Moscow again held such measures as politically “disadvantageous” and “unacceptable.” Certainly, the Kremlin was also aware of the continued widespread resentment among the Berlin and GDR population which made any more restrictive measures a risky undertaking. Instead, the Soviets urged the SED to increase its “fight against hostile elements” in West Berlin—an issue that would become more and more the focus of Soviet attitude on Berlin.

  • December 11, 1953

    National Security Council, NSC 174, Draft 'United States Policy Toward The Soviet Satellites In Eastern Europe'

    This report by the National Security Council discusses Soviet control over Eastern Europe, barriers to Soviet control of the satellites, and the power threat that consolidation poses to the United States. As a result, the NSC recommends that United States pursue a policy of resistance towards Soviet domination of its Eastern European satellites, and should impose pressure and propaganda to weaken Soviet influence.

  • July 05, 1954

    From the Journal of V. V. Vaskov, 27 August 1954: Top Secret Memorandum of Conversation with Comrade Mao Zedong on 5 July 1954

    Soviet Charge d’Affaires in Beijing V.V. Vaskov and Comrade Mao Zedong discuss the Soviet plans to take advantage of the changing situation in France. Mao mentions that Zhou is meeting with Ho Chi Ming and Vo Nguyen Giap in Guanxi and won't be able to come to Geneva until July 12-13. The topic of conversation then shifts to the US and a recent meeting between US President Eisenhower and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Mao notes that there is a diverge between Eisenhower and Churchill regarding the desirability of a dialogue with the Communists. Mao says that the US has dispersed its forces far and wide, so they are trying to resurrect West Germany and Japan.

  • July 12, 1955

    Central Committee Plenum of the CPSU Ninth Session, Concluding Word by Com. N. S. Krushchev

    Khrushchev responds to the accusations raised by Cde. Molotov about the state of Soviet foreign policy. He discusses the Soviet relationship with the Yugoslav leadership, the Austrian treaty, Soviet-US relations.

  • November 09, 1956

    Department of State, Incoming Telegram No. 1130

    Text of a personal note sent by Ambassador Bohlen to Foreign Affairs Minister Gromyko regarding an American citizen being detained in Hungary.

  • June 24, 1957

    Minutes of the Meeting of the CPSU CC Plenum on the State of Soviet Foreign Policy

    The Soviet leadership discusses the state of Soviet foreign policy after the Hungarian crisis and Khrushchev’s visit to the US. Molotov criticizes Khrushchev for recklessness in foreign policy direction. Soviet inroads in the Middle East and the Third World are analyzed. The effects of the crises in Eastern Europe are placed in the context of the struggle against US imperialism.

  • December 10, 1957

    Letter, Nikolai Bulganin to Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Bulganin proposes a halt on nuclear tests among the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom beginning on January 1, 1958.

  • January 12, 1958

    Letter, Dwight D. Eisenhower to Nikolai Bulganin

  • May 01, 1958

    Radio Liberty Broadcasting Policy Guidelines

    Policy guidelines for Radio Liberty broadcasting approved by the Committee on Radio Broadcasting Policy.

  • May 01, 1958

    Voice of America Russian Broadcasting Guidelines

    USIA guidelines for VOA Russian broadcasting policy, endorsed by the Committee on Radio Broadcasting Policy.

  • August 03, 1958

    Fourth Conversation between N.S. Khrushchev and Mao Zedong, Hall of Qinjendiang [Beijing]

    Mao and Khrushchev discuss the building of American bases around the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons testing and President Eisenhower.

  • January 05, 1959

    Moscow Dispatch No. 375, Some Considerations Regarding US Policy Toward the USSR

    Foreign Service Officer David Mark, reporting in Moscow Dispatch No. 375, suggests changes in US policy to embrace reduction of “pressure-generating activities” on Eastern Europe, including Radio Free Europe (RFE). Ambassador Llwellyn E. Thompson dissents but suggests that RFE broadcasts might be halted in exchange for an end to Soviet jamming [of Voice of America and other Western broadcasts].

  • January 13, 1959

    Soviet Report, 'The Ideological Aggression of American Imperialism in the Orient'

    This report emphasizes American propaganda in the Middle East, such as promoting democracy and American way of life, as well as its anti-Soviet propaganda. The report also extensively lists the Americans' participation in the region such as how much money and resources were devoted there, including from private institutions.

  • January 21, 1959

    Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Draft for Transmission to Various Heads of Government Regarding of A. I. Mikoyan's Conversations with Senior US Government Leaders'

    After A.I Mikoyan's trip to the United States and his conversations with senior US government leaders, the USSR MFA submitted a draft of confidential information to be sent to the heads of government of several states. The content of the instructions to be told to the foreign leaders includes discussion of the German problem and Berlin, the problem of disarmament and a halt to nuclear testing, the Near and Middle East, the Far East, and other issues.

  • February 02, 1959

    Comments on US Policy Towards the USSR and Radio Free Europe

    Richard Bissell forwards to Allen Dulles comments of Cord Meyer on Moscow Dispatch No. 375. Dulles’ handwritten comment registers agreement with Meyer and Ambassador Thompson.

  • February 24, 1959

    Charles Douglas Jackson’s Views on Eastern Europe

    C.D. Jackson, in a personal letter to Allen Dulles, suggests reviving the concept of liberation of Eastern Europe.

  • June 03, 1959

    Report of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

  • October 02, 1959

    Discussion between N.S. Khrushchev and Mao Zedong

    Khrushchev and Mao discuss current political situations in Tibet, India, Indochina and Taiwan.

  • October 14, 1959

    From the Journal of Ambassador S.F. Antonov, Summary of a Conversation with the Chairman of the CC CPC Mao Zedong

    October 1959 conversation between Mao Zedong and the Soviet diplomat and sinologist S.F. Antonov, in which Mao attempted to reassure the Soviets that China would not provoke war with the United States or with its Asian neighbors. In his conversation with Antonov, Mao attempts to lessen the impact of China’s displeasure with Soviet policies. He tries hard to show his agreement with Moscow on every issue—the United States, Taiwan, India, Tibet, disarmament.

  • November 27, 1959

    US State Department Translation, Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee, no.3471-sh, 'Resolution of the CC CPSU Regarding the Application of US National Lee Harvey Oswald for Soviet Citizenship'

    Telegram from Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, to CC CPSU advising that Lee Harvey Oswald be granted temporary sojourn in the USSR for one year and to provide him employment and housing. The Resolution includes specifics of employment and housing.