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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 19, 1958

    Note of Cde. N.S. Khrushchev to the CC Presidium about the Preparation of Documents with a Proposal to Convene a Conference of Heads of Governments on the Question of the Situation in the Area of Taiwan

    Outlines of two proposed documents for the Soviet Union to deliver, one to President Eisenhower and one to the 13th UN General Assembly. The proposed texts discuss the conflict between China and Taiwan and a potential meeting between the heads of state of the US, USSR, PRC, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand to review the situation.

  • September 30, 1958

    Memorandum of Conversation: Premier Zhou Receives Indian Ambassador to China Parthasarathy

    Premier Zhou and Ambassador Parthasarathy discuss Chinese representation at the United Nations, progress at the Sino-US Ambassadorial Talks in Warsaw, and the ongoing crisis in Taiwan. Zhou expresses frustration with American intransigence regarding Taiwan, particularly its insistence on a ceasefire, which Zhou views as an attempt "to fool the people of the world," and vows that China will continue to fight in Taiwan.

  • October 06, 1958

    Letter from the [PRC] Minister of Defense [Peng Dehuai] to Taiwanese Compatriots

    During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, the PRC Minister of Defense urges the Nationalists to negotiate with the CCP, arguing that the Americans will eventually abandon them.

  • June 03, 1959

    Report of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

  • September 12, 1959

    Record of Conversation between Comrade Liao Chengzhi and Ishibashi Tanzan

    During a conversation with Ishibashi Tanzan, Liao Chengzhi claims that the Japanese Prime Minister "did many things that hurt the feelings of the Chinese people," perhaps the first use of this now famous phrase in Chinese foreign policy discourse.

  • September 16, 1959

    G. Zhukov to the CPSU CC

    A PRC memorandum outlines supposed American plots to create “two Chinas."

  • October 02, 1959

    Discussion between N.S. Khrushchev and Mao Zedong

    Khrushchev and Mao discuss current political situations in Tibet, India, Indochina and Taiwan.

  • October 14, 1959

    Record of Conversation between Polish Delegation and PRC Leader Mao Zedong, Beijing

    Mao Zedong briefs Aleksander Zawadzki on China's socialist transformation.

  • October 14, 1959

    From the Journal of Ambassador S.F. Antonov, Summary of a Conversation with the Chairman of the CC CPC Mao Zedong

    October 1959 conversation between Mao Zedong and the Soviet diplomat and sinologist S.F. Antonov, in which Mao attempted to reassure the Soviets that China would not provoke war with the United States or with its Asian neighbors. In his conversation with Antonov, Mao attempts to lessen the impact of China’s displeasure with Soviet policies. He tries hard to show his agreement with Moscow on every issue—the United States, Taiwan, India, Tibet, disarmament.

  • June 21, 1960

    Polish Diplomat's Notes on the Situation in the Far East

    Kowalczyk's review of the situations in Taiwan including increased US presence and construction of US ports and Thailand being equipped by US army and used as a base for US planes.

  • August 30, 1960

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Edgar Snow

    Zhou Enlai talks with American journalist Edgar Snow about disputes between China and the U.S. Zhou refutes Western rumors that China has given up on peaceful coexistence with the West. Zhou says that China is willing to use peaceful settlements on disputes between China and the U.S. Zhou talks extensively about the Taiwan issue. Zhou believes that there are two main aspects to the Taiwan issue which needs to be addressed separately. The first is international dispute between the U.S. and China over Taiwan. The second aspect is the domestic dispute between CCP and Chiang Kai-shek over Taiwan. Lastly, Zhou says that the problems over principles needs to be solved before specific problems are addressed.

  • September 21, 1961

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Bernard Law Montgomery

    Premier Zhou speaks with Viscount Montgomery of Alamein about propositions to ease international tensions. Zhou agrees with Montgomery's three propositions one of which is withdrawal of foreign troops from other countries territory. Zhou proposes withdrawal of U.S. troops from South Korea and Taiwan cross straits. Also, on the Taiwan issue, Zhou says that there is only one China and Taiwan is a part of China. Zhou believes that Taiwan issue is a internal domestic issue that should not be discussed by the UN.

  • December 19, 1963

    Record of the Third Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nasser

    Zhou Enlai describes the state of Sino-American relations and Sino-Indian relations. Zhou and Nasser also discuss the Egyptian economy and Sino-Egyptian relations.

  • January 23, 1964

    Cable from Li Qingquan, 'Talks with Beaumarchais about the Issue of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between China and France'

    Li Qingquan and and Beaumarchais discuss the issue of "two China's" in the normalization of relations between China and France.

  • April 18, 1964

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Kenzo Matsumura

    Zhou Enlai speaks with the spokesman for Japan's conservative party, Kenzo Matsumura. The two sides reached an agreement on the mutual establishment of non-governmental resident offices and the exchange of resident journalists. Zhou also discusses China's stance on the Taiwan issue. Both sides agree to work together toward normalization of Sino-Japanese relations.

  • September 30, 1969

    Letter no. 428 from Franco Maria Malfatti to Aldo Moro

    Malfatti reports his observations of the Chinese ambassador, who displayed a strong position against the Soviet Union and Taiwan.

  • December 12, 1970

    Memorandum of Conversation between Romanian Deputy Premier Gheorghe Radulescu and Zhou Enlai during a Visit to China between 20-26 November 1970

    Gheorge Radulescu informs Zhou Enlai that the United States desires to improve Sino-US relations and discuss China's representation in the UN. Zhou states that China does not accept the proposal for Taiwan to remain a member of the UN as an autonomous region of China, because, in that case, other countries could ask that the same be done for Tibet and Xinjiang. Zhou notes the ongoing border disputes with the Soviet Union. Zhou also discusses Japan's growing economy and the threat of renewed Japanese militarism.

  • June 21, 1971

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and William Attwood

    American journalist William Attwood asks Premier Zhou whether the primary obstacle between the U.S. and China is Taiwan, how China plans to reunify with Taiwan, and how China plans to address differences in living standards after reunification. Zhou says that China's stance on the Taiwan issue is that Taiwan belongs to China and the U.S. should not to interfere in China's domestic matters, withdraw its armed forces from the Taiwan straits, and respect China's sovereignty. Zhou believes that living standards will only be improved when Taiwan reunifies with the mainland.

  • February 21, 1972

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chairman Mao Zedong and President Richard Nixon

    Mao Zedong and Richard Nixon focus on "philosophic problems" in relations between China and the United States during their first meeting.

  • February 22, 1972

    Memorandum of Conversation between Richard Nixon and Zhou Enlai