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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • January 13, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between ACDA Director William C. Foster and West German Ambassador Heinrich Knappstein, 'Draft Articles of Non-Proliferation Treaty,' with draft treaty attached

    In this conversation, ACDA director Foster met with Ambassador Knappstein for an extended discussion of the NPT. Topics included the treaty’s compatibility with a future European federation, consultations by the NATO Nuclear Planning Group, the definition of a nuclear weapon, and the prohibition of national control over “peaceful nuclear explosives.”

  • January 17, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between General Counsel of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency George Bunn and Soviet Counselor Yuli M. Vorontsov, 'Non-Proliferation Treaty and Other Arms Control Matters'

    Information about the recent U.S.-West German discussions had leaked to the press and in this conversation, Vorontsov “wanted to know what we had told the Germans with respect to participation in a European nuclear force.” Bunn told him that the “Germans were concerned that nothing in the treaty stand in the way of steps which might ultimately produce a United States of Europe.”

  • February 07, 1967

    Note to the French Council of Ministers on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    This note to the Council of Ministers details the jurisdiction and consequences stemming from the American request that an Article III be included into the NPT.

  • February 10, 1967

    Notes by the Euratom Commission to the Council of Ministers

    These notes from the Euratom Commission to the Council of Ministers discuss the inclusion of an agreement on nonproliferation and between the United States and the Soviet Union and the impact of oversight.

  • February 22, 1967

    US Department of State, Oral Note, 'Interpretations Regarding Draft Non-Proliferation Treaty Formulations'

    As an assurance to the Germans and other NATO allies, ACDA and the State Department drew up a memorandum on the interpretation of the NPT draft treaty. The key point was that the treaty “deals only with what is prohibited, not what is permitted.”

  • February 27, 1967

    Note by the Euratom Commission, 'Construction of an Eventual Isotopic Separation Plant'

    This note from the Euratom Commision details the possible construction of an isotope separation plant in the European Community.

  • February 28, 1967

    Interview with M. Margulies, German member of the Commission by Karl H. Schwarz, 'The Euratom Treaty Bursts'

    This interview with M. Margulies describes the Euratom Treaty as a tangible manifestation of a desire for peace.

  • March 01, 1967

    Gottfried William Moser, ACDA/Bureau of International Relations, 'Consultations with the FRG'

    In this report and after criticism over the NPT in West Germany, ACDA official G. William Moser looked into the chronology of U.S.-West German interactions. Noting that Washington had “stood foursquare with [the FRG] on the question of maintaining the MLF option under a non-proliferation treaty,” he highlighted a decision made by Rusk on 18 October 1966 to defer consultations with Bonn until he was sure that the Soviets were “serious” about the new Article I language. He concluded that Washington may need to explain Rusk's rationale.

  • March 02, 1967

    Study on the Comparison between IAEA and Euratom Safeguards by the Department of Safeguards

    This paper analyzes the safeguard systems in the Euratom Treaty and the IAEA Statute. The study concludes that Euratom has tighter and more complex control of the materials for which it is responsible, but the methods used in the two systems are comparable and compatible.

  • March 10, 1967

    US Embassy Bonn Telegram 10500 to State Department, 'Ambassador Foster’s Meeting with Chancellor Kiesinger'

    To try to strengthen West German confidence, ACDA director William C. Foster met with Chancellor Kiesinger, who expressed concern about the danger of “erosion” and “uncertainty” in U.S.-West German relations and the need for more time for consultations. Kiesinger’s “own idea was that it would have been better …to have discussed all aspects of non-proliferation ‘behind locked doors’ before any intention of signing the treaty had become public.”

  • March 15, 1967

    Memorandum by the Euratom Commission on the Visit of Lord Chalfont on 9 March 1967

    Lord Chalfont described the international agreement on non-dissemination of nuclear weapons as a new phase in negotiations on disarmament.

  • March 17, 1967

    Research Memorandum RAR-8 from George C. Denney, Jr., to the Secretary, 'The Latin American Nuclear Free Zone: Pluses and Minuses'

    The treaty creating the Latin American Nuclear Free Zone (LANFZ) was signed at Tlatelolco, Mexico, on 14 February 1967. Taking a close look at key provisions, INR found that the entry into force provisions included loopholes which “unenthusiastic” states could use so the treaty did not cover their territory.

  • March 18, 1967

    South African Department of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Proliferation Problem'

    Summary of the United States-South Africa Atomic Energy Bilateral. South Africa's sale of source material to France was the subject of some disagreement between the two parties, with the Americans worried that sale of this material would be in violation of the non-proliferation treaty.

  • March 21, 1967

    US Department of State Airgram CA-6579 to US Embassy Moscow, 'Kosygin's Remarks on Non-Proliferation in London'

    In this Airgram, the U.S. embassy in Bonn sent a translation of Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin's tough statement on the NPT at a press conference in London. Kosygin stated (of West Germany) "whether she wants this or not, such a document should be signed, because we will not allow the Federal Republic of Germany to possess nuclear weapons."

  • March 27, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between Vice President Hubert Humphrey and ACDA Director Foster, 'Ambassador Foster’s Briefing of Vice President on NPT,' with enclosure, 'Questions Most Likely to be Asked on NPT'

    During this conversation, Director Foster briefed Vice President Humphrey about the progress of the NPT. Foster said that he was willing to meet Germany’s concerns about such issues as protecting its civil nuclear industry and a future European federation. Moreover, noting that Washington had to discuss the NPT with other countries that could “otherwise go nuclear,” Foster worried that a long delay caused by consultations could “jeopardize the chance of the rest of the world getting signed up.”

  • March 29, 1967

    Euratom Commission, 'Project of Response to the Questions Asked by the Committee of Permanent Representatives to the Council'

    This project served as a response to questions asked by the Committee of Permanent Representatives to the Council. It discusses the compatibility of the NPT project and the Euratom Treaty as well as modifications.

  • April 07, 1967

    US Embassy Paris Telegram 15735 to State Department, 'Vice President’s Visit: Meeting with General de Gaulle on April 7 – Nonproliferation Treaty'

    During his meeting with French president de Gaulle, Vice President Humphrey said that Washington knew the “French position” of opposition to the NPT, but wanted to know what de Gaulle thought the “German attitude” should be.

  • April 12, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between Norwegian Ambassador Arne Gunneng and ACDA Director Foster, 'Non-Proliferation Treaty'

    In this conversation, Director Foster and Norwegian Ambassador Gunneng discussed the state of the NPT negotiations and the U.S. consultations with West Germany. Foster made comments about Italy and West Germany being inflexible, and Gunneng stated that it would cost the country "a great deal internationally" if they continued to block progress.

  • April 20, 1967

    US Embassy Bonn Telegram 12582 to State Department, 'NPT—Duration,' partly garbled transmission

    A message from the Bonn embassy highlighted an issue that had been raised by West German diplomats and which Ambassador McGhee correctly believed represented thinking at the top: Chancellor Kiesinger’s objection to an NPT “of unlimited duration.”

  • April 21, 1967

    'The President’s Trip to Germany (Chancellor Adenauer's Funeral), April 1967, Background Paper, The Non-Proliferation Treaty and Germany'

    This document detailed West German suggestions which Washington incorporated into the NPT draft.The cover memorandum reviewed the sources of West German discontent with the NPT.