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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 28, 1964

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'The project of a global reorganization of the Atlantic Alliance's nuclear deterrent'

    The project to which the document is related concerns only the strategic nuclear weapons, leaving instead the tactical ones under the specific territorial systems of control. The present document is about the components, political control and the NATO command.

  • January 10, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Origins and evolution of the project to establish a multilateral nuclear force'

    The note describes the story of the project to establish a multilateral nuclear force within NATO, from the origins up to the current situation.

  • March 03, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Forces'

    The document reports some considerations of MAE with regards to the current situation of Atlantic nuclear forces and possible future developments.

  • March 12, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini

    The report examines the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance and the uncertainty of the current phase, which consists of forces not always appropriate to its cohesion. Alessandrini analyzes both the transformations in the international context and those inside NATO, the issue of political, economic and military consultation, the debate about the multilateral force and ANF. The conclusion underlines - despite all the current problems - the positive results of the history of NATO, an alliance that represents to date not only the deterrence against possible Soviet threats, but also the most important interlocutor in an eventual East-West dialogue.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Nuclear Problems'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to nuclear problems, the document hopes for a gradual way out from NATO's current paralysis, through a process of integration, rather then the attempt to solve also these problems by mere coordination among the Allies.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Defense Planning'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to the Defense Planning, Italy claims (together with Germany) that it is absolutely indispensable to have available a well-balanced both conventional and nuclear arsenal, to preserve the SACEUR's credibility, on a political level too.

  • May 31, 1965

    Draft Telegram to Italian Embassies and Permanent Representative to NATO

    The telegram announces that the Italian government welcomes MacNamara's proposal of establishing a restricted Atlantic Nuclear Committee. This proposal is in the context of a necessary widening of the Atlantic nuclear responsibilities that now are concentrated in Washington.

  • June 02, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Committee'

    The note describes the proposal made by MacNamara as the most recent element of the US political-strategic thinking. The document explains MacNamara's proposal from its origins to the current situation. The document analyzes the position of various countries, with a focus on the Italian one and some points which still need to be sorted out. Italy seems interested in participating in the proposed Committee.

  • June 10, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Fanfani; forwarded to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    The report concerns the meeting of Ministers of Defense - recently held in Paris - and the various topics addressed within (strategy of defense, long-term planning, "selected committee").

  • October 13, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special committee proposed by MacNamara'

    The note is about MacNamara's proposal to establish a Special Committee in order to broaden Allies' participation in the strategic planning of US nuclear deterrent and to reach a more efficient process of political consultation. The document outlines some points related to Italy's position.

  • November 22, 1965

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee meeting, 27th November - Conversation with Cleveland '

    Alessandrini reports a personal conversation with Cleveland, concerning the forthcoming meeting of the Committee of Ministers of Defense of the Alliance, recently proposed by MacNamara. Italy's position should be considered positively because it seems flexible and well-balanced.

  • December 01, 1965

    Report, 'Use of nuclear weapons'

    The document is a detailed analysis about the possible use of NATO's nuclear weapons, in preparation for the Atlantic Council's December session. The French participation in the Council and the French opposition to any nuclear integration will probably leave this issue without a solution. From their point of view, the US and the Select Committee recently proposed by them should try to overcome the hindrance represented by France, at the same time without jeopardizing the cohesion of the Alliance.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'

    The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'Special Committee. Working group for the planning'

    The note outlines the Italian policy with regards to the activities of the Working group on planning, of which Italy is a part together with the US, the UK, Germany and Turkey.

  • February 20, 1966

    Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Planning Working Group of the "Special Committee" (Washington, 17th-18th February, 1966), with a letter from Andrea Cagiati'

    Cagiati sends Andreotti a report about the meeting in Washington, which concluded Giulio Andreotti's period as Minister of Defense. Cagiati thanks Andreotti for his work, that made sure that "in this period the relationship between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense has been strong and efficient like never before". The report describes the meeting (the first meeting of this working group) and the viewpoints of the participants, with special attention payed to the US nuclear policy. The document describes also the fields which require further investigations by the Working Group. There are Cagiati's personal reflections too.

  • April 30, 1966

    Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee. Meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense (London, 28th-29th April 1966)'

    The report describes the second meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense, during which a discussion about the planning, the use and the political control of tactical nuclear weapons has taken place. The document analyzes the SACEUR's position, the data related to the opposing armed forces existing in the European theater; the possible hypothesis of local conflicts and the problems related to the various scenarios. The London meeting was "open-ended", without leading to any concrete decision, and the topic appeared more complex than expected. The document observes that within the NATO there are diverging opinions on these matters.

  • July 28, 1966

    Letter by Andrea Cagiati of Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP) to Andreotti

    The Diplomatic Adviser Andrea Cagiati - after 4 years of service in NATO - will be moved to Madrid and he sends Andreotti the following: 1) his personal opinions with regards to the meeting recently held in Paris by the MacNamara Committee (document dated 29th July 1966); 2) a note titled "Special MacNamara Committee" - Paris meeting (26th July 1966), dated 28th July, which reports the evolution of the discussions. The recent meeting highlights a difference of approach with regards to the extent and the tasks that face the new committee. The document analyzes the issue of nuclear sharing from both a military-political and a psychological side and the main NATO countries' positions.

  • October 06, 1967

    General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Summary Report of the 2nd Nuclear Planning Group meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Ankara, 28-29 September 1967)'

    The document reports the evolution of the meeting. Italy was there represented by the new Minister of Defense Tremelloni, the Chief of Staff Aloia, the diplomat Alessandrini (RICA) and others. Topics discussed: possible use of ADM; possible use of tactical nuclear weapons; ABM; Italian participation in military nuclear planning; information about the nuclear weapons deployed in NATO countries. Aloia believes that the discussion was fruitful, keeping in mind the complexity of the nuclear issues, that have just recently been able to count on permanent bodies appropriate to deal with them at a political level. France's negative behavior caused a postponement of the discussion about many military-political topics in the last years.

  • 1969

    Report, 'Legitimacy, situation and prospects of the Atlantic Alliance'

    Describes the current state of the Atlantic Alliance and the most critical points of debate. The report ends maintaining that NATO has now overcome the most difficult crisis of its existence.

  • June 20, 1971

    Memorandum of analysis by Roberto Ducci, 'The international situation after the Lisbon Council and some provisions that should be undertaken'

    Roberto Ducci analyzes recent developments in US and Soviet foreign policies vis-à-vis Europe. He discusses the risk of US abandonment in Europe, and fragmentation of Western Europe in light of the ongoing MBFR negotiations, stating that USSR foreign policy is proving to be more capable than expected.