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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • August 05, 1961

    Record of a Conversation between Deputy Secretary Huang Zhen and the Polish Ambassador to China

    Huang Zhen and Jerzy Knothe discuss the socialist bloc's foreign policy coordination.

  • March 08, 1962

    Summary of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Pakistan’s Ambassador to the PRC, Rashidi (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai and Ali Muhammad Rashidi discuss the disputes between Pakistan and India and Afghanistan, and China's positions in those conflicts.

  • September 01, 1962

    Record of Conversation following Pakistani Ambassador to the PRC Raza’s Presentation of Credentials to Liu Shaoqi’s

    Liu Shaoqi and N.A.M. Raza discuss the Sino-Indian border dispute, and criticize India for having "great power chauvinism."

  • September 05, 1962

    Pakistani Ambassador Raza Pays Formal Visit to Chinese Premier Zhou

    Zhou Enlai and Pakistani Ambassador Raza discuss Chinese and Pakistani relations with India, especially Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's positions on Kashmir, Sino-Indian border disputes, and Sino-Indian interactions on Taiwan and Tibet.

  • October 20, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'Minutes of the Conversation Between the Chinese Ambassador Ding Guoyu and Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Secretary on the Sino-Indian Border Clash'

    The two discussed Pakistan's view toward the Sino-Indian conflict. Pakistan sympathized with China and thought that India "deserved to be taught a lesson". Islamabad regarded Nehru as a liar who was ostensibly neutral, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist but in fact signed secret treaties with the US. Both Chinese and Pakistani representatives agreed to strive to resolve peacefully the border issue between Beijing and Islamabad.

  • October 27, 1962

    Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Presidium Protocol 62

    Protocol 62 illustrates how it was Khrushchev who raised the stakes during the missile crisis and dictated a new letter to Kennedy indicating he would only remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange of the United States withdrawing its military bases from Turkey and Pakistan. The Pakistan demand would later be dropped, however and the US would only agree to remove its IRBMs from Turkey.

  • November 24, 1962

    Minutes of Conversation between Chinese Director of First Department of Asian Affairs Zhang Wenjin and Ambassador of Pakistan Raza

    Ambassador Raza expressed his support for China in the Sino-Indian border conflict, accused India of being two-faced, and talked about how people had misunderstood Pakistan in favor of India in the past.

  • November 30, 1962

    Minutes of Conversation between Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Huang Zhen and Cambodian King Norodom Sihanouk

    Huang Zhen and Sihanouk discus the Sino-Indian dispute, an international conference on Cambodian neutrality and territorial integrity and the boundary issue between Cambodia and Thailand and South Vietnam

  • December 26, 1962

    Record of Conversation Between Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and Mongolian Leader J. Zedenbal

    Record of conversation between Zhou Enlai and J. Zedebal largely focused on the Sino-Indian border dispute

  • August 12, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice Premier Chen Yi, and Pakistani Ambassador Raza

    Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Ambassador Raza coordinate China and Pakistan's strategies toward the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. They also discuss Sino-American relations.

  • November 18, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Head of Pakistan’s Delegation Participating in the PRC’s National Day Celebration, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani

    Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, representing Pakistan. The two discuss, at length, their criticisms of United States imperialism, pointing to, among other things, Algeria and French Indochina as examples of imperialism's impending fall. Zhou then explains to Bhashani the importance of holding an Afro Asian Conference before the upcoming Non-Aligned Conference, which Zhou views as an attempt by Nehru and Tito to "destroy the Afro-Asian Conference." Conversation concludes by discussing the Kashmir conflict.

  • February 25, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Chen Yi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

    Chen Yi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto conversation, focusing mainly on the Soviet Union's current foreign policy regarding India. Both Chen Yi and Bhutto criticize the Soviet Union's support for India. Bhutto complains that China and Pakistan are the "only countries that expose India" for their behavior. Both agree that Pakistan and China must work hard together to prevent India -- with its support from the US and Soviet Union -- from strengthening its influence over the Security Council, UN and Afro-Asian politics.

  • July 16, 1964

    Record of Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Reception of with Pakistani Minister of Commerce Wahid Zaman

    Mao and Wahid Zaman discuss Pakistan and China's problems with India, imperialism, and the economic conditions in their countries.

  • October 20, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'Pakistan's Reaction to China's Nuclear Explosion'

    The Chinese Embassy in Pakistan summarizes local media responses to China's successful nuclear test.

  • 1965

    Organizing Cargo to be Shipped by Air Transport from China to Burma, Cambodia, and Pakistan

    A report on organizing air routes between China and Burma, Cambodia, and Pakistan.

  • April 02, 1965

    Record of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Pakistan's Foreign Minister Bhutto

    Zhou and Bhutto discuss the Second Asian-African Conference, as well as the potential for a rapprochement between China and the Philippines.

  • April 02, 1965

    Record of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and the President of Pakistan Ayub Khan

    Zhou, Ayub Khan, and Zulfikar Bhutto discuss the Vietnam War, China's relations with the US and the Soviet Union, the Second Asian-African Conference, and the Non-Aligned Movement.

  • April 20, 1965

    Minutes of Conversation between Premier Zhou and Bhutto

    Bhutto shares with Zhou the results of Ayub Khan's visit to the Soviet Union. He also discusses the problems that the Sino-Soviet split has created for Pakistan, Soviet military aid to India, and the Vietnam War.

  • April 23, 1965

    Intelligence Note from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Will Communist China Assist Other Nations in Acquiring Nuclear Weapons?'

    Only months after China’s first nuclear test in October 1964, INR looked into whether Beijing would help other nations get the bomb.

  • May 19, 1965

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'Reactions to China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan describes different responses of Pakistani government officials and foreign government diplomats in Pakistan regarding China's first nuclear weapons test.