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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • April, 1957

    Handwritten Notes from Khrushchev’s Talks with the Albanian Delegation

    Khrushchev, speaking to an Albanian delegation, emphasizes that ideology cannot be divorced from practical economic realities. He suggests that Albania must develop its economy, with the support of the Soviet Union, in order to make its workers content, and give off an attractive image of socialism to Arab countries so that socialism may spread into these areas. Khrushchev criticizes Stalin for not recognizing the important link between ideology and economic practicality, and concludes with mentions of current situations in Yugoslavia, Poland and Hungary.

  • April 15, 1957

    Memorandum of Conversation with Soviet Leaders on Party-Related Issues

    Hoxha complains to Khrushchev about Yugoslavia's conduct toward Albania. While Khrushchev says that the Soviet Union will back Albania, he complains about Hoxha's personal demeanor and emotional complaints about Yugoslavia. Khrushchev also criticizes Albania's decision to execute a woman, and a Yugoslav national.

  • June 24, 1957

    Minutes of the Meeting of the CPSU CC Plenum on the State of Soviet Foreign Policy

    The Soviet leadership discusses the state of Soviet foreign policy after the Hungarian crisis and Khrushchev’s visit to the US. Molotov criticizes Khrushchev for recklessness in foreign policy direction. Soviet inroads in the Middle East and the Third World are analyzed. The effects of the crises in Eastern Europe are placed in the context of the struggle against US imperialism.

  • April 11, 1958

    Cable from Qiao Xiaoguang to the Central Committee, 'Korea Has Decided Not to Send a Party Delegation to Yugoslavia'

    Qiao Guanhua reports that the Korean Workers' Party will not send a delegation the 7th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.

  • April 17, 1958

    Record of Conversation with Member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

    Memorandum of Conversation between P.F. Iudin and Deng Xiaoping. Iudin and Xiaoping discussed the letter from the CC of the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia [UCY] to the CC CPSU. Deng expressed his support for the CC CPSU decisions regarding the Yugoslav affairs, showed no objections to the CC UCY's program, and favored the Yugoslavs in their development of Marxist thought.

  • April 19, 1958

    From the Diary of P. F. Yudin: Memorandum of Conversation with Mao Zedong on 5 April 1958

    Conversation between P.F. Yudin, Mao Zedong, and Zhou Enlai regarding Yugoslavia's place in the international Communist community, especially Tito's inconsistency as an ally.

  • May 09, 1958

    Memorandum of Conversation with Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC Zhang Wentian

    Record of conversation between S.F. Antonov and Zhang Wentian, regarding Chinese plans to influence Japanese politics. Additionally, Zhang comments on the close relationship between Poland and Yugoslavia.

  • May 12, 1958

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A. M. Puzanov for 12 May 1958

    Pak Geum-cheol and Puzanov are indignant with the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, while Nam Il desires for the Soviet Union to expand an exhibit about the peaceful use of atomic energy in Pyongyang.

  • June 03, 1959

    Report of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

  • June 06, 1959

    Notes taken during a Meeting between Enver Hoxha and Choe Yong-geon

    Enver Hoxha and Choe Yeonggeon discuss industry and socialist development in North Korea and Albania while disproving of revisionism.

  • January 04, 1960

    Department of State Burea of Intelligence and Research, Intelligence Information Brief No. 236, 'Yugoslavia Nuclear Reactor Goes into Operation'

    This report gives an overview of Yugoslavia’s nuclear program and its tight links with both East and West in terms of financial aid and training programs

  • February 09, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 9 February 1960

    Kim Il Sung and Puzanov review a memorandum of conversation between Nikita Khrushchev and Yugoslavia's Vukmanovic-Tempo.

  • October 29, 1960

    Information on the VIII Congress of National Socialist Party of Cuba

    In a secret supplement to information from the VIII Congress of the People's Socialist Party, Bulgarian delegates Abramov and Tellalov summarize answers that Blas Roca, the Cuban delegation head, provided the congress. Roca claimed that socialism is the end goal of the revolution, but it is not publicly discussed. He explained the Communist party's involvement in the revolution and July 26th Movement. Abramov and Tellalov also describe the reestablishment of relations and disagreements between Cuba and Yugoslavia, including discussions about weapons. Fidel Castro met with socialist country representatives and described Cuba's plans to nationalize enterprises, particularly American. During the congress Castro described the evolution of the July 26th Movement and the consolidation of Communism in Cuba. Abramov and Tellalov endorse Castro's leadership and review the Cuban military's strengths and weaknesses. There is a brief mention Sino-Soviet relations.

  • January 11, 1961

    Information from MVR Inspectorate on Yugoslav Intelligence Services Against Bulgaria

    The Ministry of Internal Affairs reports its intelligence findings on the activities of the Yugoslav intelligence services against Bulgaria. Working both from home and in-country, the Yugoslav intelligence is allegedly trying to gather information on a broad set of issues – ranging from trade relations within Comecon, to Bulgaria’s military capacity and its potential to pose a threat to Yugoslav Macedonia.

  • June 06, 1961

    Telegram from an official in the Albanian embassy in Beijing Lilo Zeneli to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Zeneli writes about his meeting with the 2nd Secretary in the Cuban embassy in Beijing who asked Zeneli about his opinion on the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade. Zeneli answered that the Albanian government greets any initiative which aims to help the struggle against imperialism and colonialism with the objective of establishing peace. He also declared that Yugoslavia is not a non-aligned state because it participated in the Balkan military pact with Greece and Turkey, both of which are members of NATO. The 2nd Secretary of Cuba expressed his hope that there will be positive results during the conference that would lessen the international tensions between the two blocs.

  • June 09, 1961

    From the Journal of S.M. Kudryavtsev, 'Record of a Conversation with Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba Fidel Castro Ruz, 28 April 1961'

    Fidel Castro expresses his desire for Cuba--US diplomatic relations to resume and asks Kudryavtsev for Soviet support at the UN Security Council in countering American aggression. Castro asks Kuydryavstev to ascertain the Soviet opinion on Cuba's participation in a conference of neutral countries organized by Yugoslavia and the UAR.

  • June 12, 1961

    Report on the meeting between Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, and Raúl Roa

    Raúl Roa is the head of the Cuban delegation to the preparatory conference for the upcoming non-aligned countries conference. Roa invited all the diplomats of socialist countries to his mansion for lunch on June 9. He informed the diplomats about the different groups established in the conference concerning their opinions on revisionism. On one hand, was India, Cambodia, Nepal, Burma, Algeria and Yugoslavia. All of them request that there will be no display of anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist spirit at the conference. On the other hand, Cuba, Guinea, Mali, Ghana, Ceylon, and to a certain extent the UAR and Iraq, requested that there should be anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist discourse during the conference. Roa also informed that Belgrade was decided upon to be the location of the conference. At first upon hearing that Belgrade would be the location Roa hesitated, but later he decided to participate in order to create a “left-wing” group with anti-imperialist character in the conference. He received the recommendation for the creation of this group from the Soviet, Chinese and Czech delegations. After the meeting, Malile was informed that Roa has prolonged his stay in Cairo because the Arabs and Indians agreed jointly to make some changes to the conference documents during their printing. Roa intended to stay in order to halt these actions.

  • June 23, 1961

    Telegram from Gaqo Paze, the Albanian Ambassador in GDR to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Gaqo Paze reports from Berlin that during the conversation between the Yugoslav Ambassador to Berlin Voshnjak, and the Soviet ambassador to Berlin Pervukhin, the latter had asked if Yugoslavia would subscribe to the peace treaty with the GDR if the Western states would not accept to sign the peace treaty with both German states. Voshnjak avoided giving a direct answer several times, but in the end he implicitly expressed, according to Gaqo Paze, that Yugoslavia would not sign the treaty.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jozip Broz Tito and George F. Kennan

    Kennan reports on a conversation with Tito where they discussed the upcoming Belgrade Conference of Non-Aligned States.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.