Search in
ADD SEARCH FILTER CANCEL SEARCH FILTER

Digital Archive International History Declassified

SEARCH RESULTS

  • August 23, 1961

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO to the Minister of Defense, 'General Norstad's petition to the Council'

    Italian official Pinna Caboni summarizes the military report delivered by General Norstad regarding the threat of attack on Berlin, evidenced by the presence of Soviet troops near the city. According to General Norstad, immediate action must be taken to mitigate the threat of nuclear attack on Berlin in the interests of Germany as well as all of Western Europe.

  • September 15, 1961

    Letter from Ulbricht to Khrushchev on Closing the Border Around West Berlin

    Ulbricht writes to Khrushchev regarding the closing of the border between east and west Berlin.

  • September 28, 1961

    Letter from Khrushchev to Ulbricht Regarding the Situation in Berlin

    Khrushchev response to Ulbricht's 15 September letter regarding the closing of the border between east and west Berlin. He notes that since the Western powers were tending toward negotiation rather than confrontation over the crisis, "such steps which could exacerbate the situation, especially in Berlin, should be avoided."

  • October 30, 1961

    Letter from Ulbricht and the SED CC Delegation to the CPSU 22nd Congress in Moscow to Khrushchev

    Representing the SED CC delegation, Ulbricht writes to Khrushchev requesting a meeting with the CPSU CC presidium, for which he outlines the topics necessary for discussion. Topics include the West Berlin question and the need for an agreement between Western powers and the USSR, and a treaty between the GDR and West Germany to establish territorial sovereignty.

  • December 18, 1961

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Recent ministerial session of the Atlantic Council'

    Report on the growing threat of a Soviet blockade of Berlin, the focal point also of a meeting of the Atlantic Council in Paris in December, 1961.

  • December 18, 1961

    Message by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP), 'Alessandrini's (RICA) report to MAE Segni'

    Report on the growing threat of a Soviet blockade of Berlin, the focal point also of a meeting of the Atlantic Council in Paris in December, 1961.

  • January 09, 1962

    East German Ministry of State Security, 'Brief Assessment of the Investigation Results Achieved in 1961 in Work on Crimes of Espionage'

    Assessment by the Stasi of the espionage of the main Western secret services in East Germany based on its investigation of cases of spying in 1961.

  • June 04, 1962

    Information about a Conversation between the Ambassador of the DPRK Comrade Gwon Yeong-tae and Comrade Alfred Kurella

    The North Korean Amabassador in East Germany evaluates politics, the economy, schooling, and the military in South Korea

  • July 01, 1962

    Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Presidium Protocol No. 39

    Protocol 39 gives some evidence that Khrushchev was thinking about more than just Cuba. Khrushchev discussed the importance of getting the US to stop flying over the ships heading to Cuba. After discussing the timetable for sending the missiles to Cuba, Khrushchev led his colleagues in a re-examination of the Soviet Union’s policy on West Berlin. Berlin had not been a topic of discussion for months.

  • September 20, 1962

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini, 'Emergency plans for Berlin'

    Report on NATO’s emergency plan to protect Berlin if the Soviets try to blockade the city. The plan consists of three parts: diplomatic negotiations, limited military action, and large-scale military action. Alessandrini outlines the conditions in which each phase would be implemented if Berlin finds itself under Soviet attack.

  • October 23, 1962

    Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Presidium Protocol 60

    Protocol 60 details the first meeting of the Communist Party during the crisis. As Khrushchev is awaiting the announcement by President Kennedy of the discovery of missiles in Cuba, he and some of his colleagues briefly considered using tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a US airborne assault. But, at the suggestion of Soviet defense minister Rodion Malinovsky, the Kremlin postponed its consideration of a nuclear response pending details of Kennedy’s speech.The Kremlin wasted no time in taking steps to reduce the risks of confrontation. It ordered some ships that were still in the Mediterranean to turn around. The Aleksandrovsk, the ship carrying the nuclear warheads for the IRBMs (the R-14s), was ordered to keep sailing, however, because it was close enough to Cuban shores to dock before the blockade went into effect.

  • October 27, 1962

    Cable from Federal Republic of Germany Embassy, Washington (Knappstein)

    A cable from the West German Embassy in Washington, D.C. discussing the threat to American security posed by an "offensive" Soviet base in Cuba, insights provided by recent intelligence, the purpose and the impact of the American blockade of Cuba, negotiations that have taken place at the United Nations, Soviet intentions during the Cuban crisis and, finally, a comparison of Cuba to the situation in Berlin.

  • November 09, 1962

    Cable from Dutch Embassy, Washington (Van Roijen), 9 November 1962

    Van Roijen cables from Washington about a conversation he had with British Ambassador to the United States David Ormsby-Gore. Ormsby-Gore explains the possible reaction from Moscow to the defeat suffered in the crisis as twofold: Those who are of the opinion that Khrushchev will make a countermove, while those whose judgment is that Khrushchev has finally understood that the Americans in fact are willing to fight for their vital national interests has learned severe lessons for future Soviet policy in the Cold War. Both van Roijen and Ormsby-Gore that perhaps the most decisive moment of the whole crisis was the American blockade of Cuba herself. The cable concludes with Ormsby-Gore addressing the possibilities of hidden missiles in Cuba, to which he claims aerial reconnaissance has not produced any evidence to support this.

  • May 02, 1963

    The Development of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's Reunification Policy

    The report offers a summary and an evaluation of North Korea's reunification plans from 1945 through 1962.

  • October 08, 1963

    Letter from Gomulka to Khrushchev, Marked 'Final Version'

    Letter from Gomulka to Khrushchev discussing Polish opposition to Soviet proposal for a Non-Proliferation Treaty. Gomulka suggests that the treaty will further split the communist camp. While discussing the state of Sino-Soviet relations, the Polish leader suggests that the Soviet Union and the PRC adopt a common position in matters of foreign policy in order to strengthen the power of the Socialist camp.

  • February 13, 1967

    Ministry for State Security, 'Single Information about the Display in the Showcases of the Embassy of the PR China in the GDR with anti-Soviet Materials'

    A report on the anti-Soviet materials displayed in front of the Chinese Embassy in East Germany.

  • October 10, 1969

    Working Material for the Preparation of a European Security Conference

    An analysis written by the GDR's Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the respective positions of European socialist states, socialist states in general, and NATO and other capitalist European states, on the organization of a European security conference, as well as guidance for carrying out the CSCE negotiations based upon an analysis of each side's perceived strengths and weaknesses

  • December 02, 1969

    Transcript of a meeting between the delegations of the PZPR and the SED in Moscow (Excerpt)

    Excerpt from a conversation in which Polish Communist leaders Jozef Cyrankiewicz and Wladyslaw Gomulka remind Walter Ulbricht of how they suggested closing the border between East and West Berlin years before the Berlin Wall was constructed.

  • March 10, 1970

    Memorandum for President Nixon from Kissinger, "The Current Status of Brandt's Ostpolitik"

    A memorandum for President Nixon from National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger on the current status of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt's "Ostpolitik" or Eastern Policy, which sought to normalize relations between West Germany and the communist countries.

  • March, 1971

    Memorandum from the Director for Federal Security, Cap. Luis de la Barreda Moreno

    Director for Federal Security Luis de la Barreda Moreno reports on North Korean training of Mexican guerrillas. He describes how Mexican citizens headed for North Korea were given fraudulent documentation and other assistance from socialist countries and lists the names and pseudonyms of Mexican guerrillas given to him by a member of the Revolutionary Action Movement.