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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • August 25, 1966

    Latin America: A Note for the Forthcoming Tripartite (Non-Aligned) Meeting

    This document describes the overall regional environments in Latin America after the Cuban Missile Crisis (1960s)

  • August 31, 1966

    Telegram from the Indian Embassy in Mexico City

    The Latin American Denuclearization Commission has been post-poned.

  • March 10, 1967

    Note on Meeting of the Non-Aligned Group at the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament

    Disagreement between representatives of Mexico and the UAR on the non-aligned group developing a common position.

  • March 17, 1967

    Research Memorandum RAR-8 from George C. Denney, Jr., to the Secretary, 'The Latin American Nuclear Free Zone: Pluses and Minuses'

    The treaty creating the Latin American Nuclear Free Zone (LANFZ) was signed at Tlatelolco, Mexico, on 14 February 1967. Taking a close look at key provisions, INR found that the entry into force provisions included loopholes which “unenthusiastic” states could use so the treaty did not cover their territory.

  • June 13, 1967

    Telegram from Ambassador Trivedi, 'Non-Aligned Meeting'

    Different points of Mexico and Brazil on the denuclearization treaty of Latin America

  • July 04, 1967

    A Report from the Mexican Embassy in Havana, 4 July 1967

    A visit of Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin from 26-30 June 1967 prompts this report from the Mexican Embassy in Havanna to the Secretary of Foreign Relations in Mexico City. They discuss: the position assumed by the Cuban Government and Communist Party in relation to Latin America, the Middle East and Vietnam, the internal administration of Cuba and the political operation in Cuba.

  • November 07, 1967

    25th Meeting of Non-Aligned Group with Discussion on Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    Mexican and Brazilian representatives disagree on if peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are allowed by the Latin American treaty.

  • November 17, 1967

    Operation MANUEL: Origins, Development and Aims

    Comrade Josef Houska submits a document concerning issues related to cooperation with the Cuban intelligence service especially the Operation MANUEL to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The Operational MANUEL started in 1962 when the Cuban intelligence asked the Czechoslovak resident in Havana to arrange a transit through Prague for Venezuelan nationals who underwent guerrilla training in Cuba. In 1964 talks were held between Cuban and Czechoslovak intelligence services but no formal agreement of the tasks and responsibilities was concluded between the two. The Soviet government was informed about the Operation MANUEL and stated its agreement with the project. Houska says that the main objective of the operation is the education and training of revolutionary cadres from Latin America and the organization of combat groups. Participants of the operation were not confined to cadres from among the ranks of communist parties but also included members from various nationalist and anti-American groupings. The routes of individual participants in the operation were determined by the Cuban intelligence service who mainly directed the Operation MANUEL. Houska says problems that arisen in the course of the operation were solved in collaboration with Cuban and the Soviet authorities. The document cautioned about counter-espionage institutions' increasing interests in the operation and the fact that the US intelligence service agents were among the operation participants. Houska says refusal to offer assistance would have a negative impact on Cuba and Czechoslovakia would lose control over the operation.

  • November 27, 1969

    Letter from the Soviet Embassy in Mexico to the General Administration of Ceremonies of the Secretary of Foreign Relations of the United Mexican States

    The Soviet embassy in Mexico requests diplomatic identification cards for the Minister-Counselor of the USSR Embassy in Mexico Dmitri A. Diakonov and his wife Veronika Diakonova.

  • January 27, 1971

    Memorandum from the Director for Federal Security, Cap. Luis de la Barreda Moreno

    Director for Federal Security Luis de la Barreda Moreno reports on information gained from the interrogation of Rogelio Raya Morales, a member of the Revolutionary Action Movement (MAR). This information includes summaries of Raya Morales's activities on behalf of the MAR, names and pseudonyms of those he worked with, and descriptions of the training received by Mexican revolutionaries in North Korea.

  • February 20, 1971

    Biographical Facts on Fabricio Apolos Gomez Souza

    Federal Security Agent Enrique Hoeck Cossio lists basic biographical information on Fabricio Gomez Souza, an arrested member of the Revolutionary Action Committee (MAR).

  • February 22, 1971

    Statement by Fabricio Gómez Souza

    Information given under oath by Fabricio Gómez Souza after his arrest. Among other things, he provides the locations of his family members' homes, details his path to socialist ideas and the Revolutionary Action Movement, lists the names and pseudonyms of those he worked with, and explains his methods for raising funds by selling American goods in East Germany.

  • February 28, 1971

    Memorandum from Federal Director of Security, Cap. Luís de la Barreda Moreno

    Director of Federal Security Luis de la Barreda Moreno reports on the details of Revolutionary Action Movement (MAR) member Angel Bravo Cisneros's confession to participating in a robbery at the Three Golden Stars truck terminal, including other MAR members involved in obtaining or hiding the money.

  • March, 1971

    Memorandum from the Director for Federal Security, Cap. Luis de la Barreda Moreno

    Director for Federal Security Luis de la Barreda Moreno reports on North Korean training of Mexican guerrillas. He describes how Mexican citizens headed for North Korea were given fraudulent documentation and other assistance from socialist countries and lists the names and pseudonyms of Mexican guerrillas given to him by a member of the Revolutionary Action Movement.

  • March 03, 1971

    Memorandum from the Director for Federal Security, Cap. Luis de la Barreda Moreno

    Using information gained in investigations into the Revolutionary Action Movement (MAR) as well as testimonies from the interrogations of Angel Bravo Cisneros and Fabricio Gomez Souza, Director for Federal Security Luis de la Barreda Moreno lists the names, pseudonyms, and addresses of suspected MAR members and the locations of Marxist schools in Mexico.

  • March 15, 1971

    Press Release

    In this press release, the Mexican Solicitor General describes the criminal activity of the nineteen Revolutionary Action Movement (MAR) members arrested for the assault and robbery of a cashier from the Commerce Bank of Morelia at the Three Stars bus terminal. He swears to continue the investigation with the goal of arresting all MAR members as well as others trained in North Korea or recruited from abroad.

  • March 19, 1971

    Press Release from the Office of Los Angeles Mayor Sam Yorty

    This press release quotes Los Angeles Mayor Sam Yorty as praising the Mexican government for its effectiveness in clamping down on Communist guerrillas trained in North Korea, action he sees as part of a broader effort to eliminate Russian subversive activity in the hemisphere.

  • May, 1971

    Some Truths about the M.A.R. (Revolutionary Action Movement)

    Seeking to correct press coverage of the arrests of Revolutionary Action Movement (MAR) members, the imprisoned members describe their arrests and those of their relatives, highlight tactics of coercion and physical torture used by security forces to extract confessions, and share information on the case that they believe is being misrepresented.

  • November 28, 1978

    Information on the Developments in Nicaragua

    Report which outlines the activity of leftist opposition movements in Nicaragua in their attempt to overthrow the rule of Somoza. The text gives an account of the support which various leftist opposition organizations have received from neighboring countries. According to the information, the following groups have overtly expressed discontent with the ruling regime: The Democratic Union for Liberation, the “Group of Twelve,” the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement, and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). Those movements have been supported politically, financially, and in some instances with military aid, by the governments of Venezuela, Mexico, Panama, Costa Rica, and Cuba. The text suggests that two factors have contributed to the escalating tension in Nicaragua – the internal struggle against the regime combined with pressures from outside, coming mainly from the USA, to keep the regime in place.

  • November 27, 1981

    Telegram No.: MEX/104/1/81, Secretary Haig’s Visit to Mexico (November 23-24)

    The US ratified additional protocol I to the Treaty of Tlateloco for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in Latin America.