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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March 21, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to Piccioni concerning NATO MLF consultations

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on consultatons in Paris between the Birindelli and Lee groups regarding technological-military options related to Polaris A3-armed naval forces. Two annexes concerning survivability and costs.

  • March 26, 1963

    Note by SMD on NATO MLF

    Analysis by Gen. A. Rossi on NATO multinational and multilateral force proposals. In particular, the paper focused on MLF features, with political military legal and financial observations. It includes also a technical analysis of the US proposal for a MLF based on Polaris-armed merchant ships .

  • March 29, 1963

    Report from Alessandrini to Piccioni on NATO MLF

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini to Deputy Prime Minister concerning informal meeting with US NATO ambassdor Finletter on MLF preliminary plans.

  • April 17, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on French Position on MLF

    Report by italian representative to the Atlantic Council A. Alessandrini on objections by French representativ to NATO MLF.

  • May 10, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Alessandrini's report to PM Piccioni and Minister of Defense Andreotti discusses current questions of defense that will be brought up in the upcoming Ottawa session. According to him, NATO should focus on its internal organization and in particular, developing a common nuclear force, despite the technical and political challenges of such project.

  • May 10, 1963

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    In view of the Ottawa meeting, Alessandrini analyzes the current situation of NATO's conventional forces, in accordance with the new drastic measures which were formulated - but not yet validated - by the Council. Alessandrini stresses that the problems related to armaments - both nuclear and conventional - can't be solved by "separated and independent" solutions. Furthermore, the document deals with the risk that NATO could define interests of "priority defense" and of "minor defense", using an approach that could probably ignore - for example - the interests of Italy.

  • May 13, 1963

    Note by JSMD to MD on MLF

    Considerations by Gen. Aldo Rossi on the structure of NATO nuclear forces, Inter-allied and Multilateral Force, issues of surface ships vulnerability, costs and budget.

  • May 20, 1963

    MAE cable on FRG defense budget and MLF

    Note on FRG's position vis-à-vis the MLF particularly Defense Minister Von Hassel's position, as emerged in the course of debates over the FRG defense budget.

  • June 07, 1963

    Note from the President of the Italian Republic to Andreotti

    Note by A. Segni regarding options for Italian military participation to NATO nuclear forces.

  • June 13, 1963

    Annex to analysis by SMD on Proposal to assign to NATO Italian Polaris-armed Ships

    Report by Gen. A. Rossi on Polaris SLBM and NATO naval forces, including technological and employment features, costs. The report includes discussions of IRBM forces in Italy, and French and British nuclear forces.

  • June 13, 1963

    Analysis by SMD on Proposal to assign to NATO Italian Polaris-armed Ships

    Considerations by Gen. Aldo Rossi on prospective assignment to NATO of Italian ships armed with Polaris. Includes a discussion of issue of surface ships and responses by US Navy to Italian questions. Two annexes: 1 Inter-allied Nuclear Force, pros for Italy; 2 Italy's position on Multilateral Nuclear Force.

  • June 22, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by italian ambassador to the US Fenoaltea on meeting with the head of the MLF negotiating team L.T. Merchant.

  • June 28, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni

    In this report to Foreign Minister Piccioni, Alessandrini addresses the key problems with NATO, focusing on the lack of internal cohesion . He names the German problem as the most important issue of the alliance, but touches also on De Gaulle's politics and European integration.

  • July 09, 1963

    Report by Ambassador Quaroni to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni, 'General De Martino's candidacy and Standing Group'

    Italian Ambassador to London, Quaroni, analyzes the internal situation of NATO, and Italy's standing that he considers very weak. He describes the situation as "total Cold War" between US and France, where Kennedy and De Gaulle have different visions for the future.

  • July 15, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by ambassador to the UK Pietro Quaroni on meeting with Foreign Minister Douglas-Home after President Kennedy's discussions in Rome on MLF.

  • July 23, 1963

    Note by MD Cabinet on MLF

    Summary of Report by Italian embassy in London on discussions between ambassador Quaroni and british foreign minister Douglas-Home on NATO MLF.

  • August 13, 1963

    Italian Communist Ugo Pecchioli, Report on Trip to Cuba

    Italian Communist, Ugo Pecchioli, reports on his trip to Cuba. He discusses: the relative international situation of Cuba; meetings with Fidel Castro; the profound divergence that exists (in his opinion) between the Chinese Communist Party and the great majority of the other communist parties; the development of the struggle for democracy and socialism in different Latin American countries; and Italian and Cuban communist party relations.

  • August 27, 1963

    Note from Cagiati to Andreotti on MLF Situation and Perspectives

    Note by Head of NATO desk, MAE DAP, Andrea Cagiati on the purpose and scope of suggesting a "european provision" during negotiations for the NATO MLF.

  • August 28, 1963

    Note from Cagiati to Andreotti on MLF Recent Developments

    Note by Head of NATO desk, MAE DAP, Andrea Cagiati on developments in discussions on MLF in the wake of Rome meetings between defense experts and Adm. Ricketts.

  • September 11, 1963

    MAE Cable Report on MLF

    Note by Italian Embassy in Athens on meetings with officials from the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs concerning MLF and greek government's point of view on Atlantic defense.