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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 29, 1968

    Telegram Number 5186/92, 'Chinese Foreign Policy'

    Relying on British assessments of the situation in China, the French Ambassador in London reports that Chinese foreign policy is the outcome of debates between anti-Soviets and anti-Americans within the CCP.

  • November 20, 1968

    Telegram Number 2206/09, 'NATO Ministerial Council'

    French diplomat Lucien Paye assesses Chinese foreign policy in the aftermath of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia and speculates that China wishes to exploit differences within the NATO camp.

  • January 30, 1969

    Note Gérard de la Villesbrunne to the Foreign Minister, 'New Interest of Western Diplomacy towards China: Hopes and Illusions'

    The French Consul General in Hong Kong notes a spike in China's diplomatic activities with Western Europe, Japan, and the U.S., but concludes that China, "still concerned by internal questions, does not seem to be willing to respond to the openings of non-communist countries with as much enthusiasm as hoped for in the West."

  • May 16, 1969

    Note Number 399 from Pierre Cerles to Michel Debré, 'China and Eastern Europe'

    Pierre Cerles provides an assessment of Chinese foreign policy toward Eastern Europe during the 1960s within the context of the Sino-Soviet split, the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Cultural Revolution, and China's own internal leadership divisions.

  • June 12, 1969

    Note Number 760 from Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel to Michel Debré, 'Chinese Foreign Policy'

    The French Ambassador in Great Britain reports new details on border clashes between China and the Soviet Union in Xinjiang-Kazakhstan, Chinese diplomacy in the Third World and with the West, and the state of Sino-British relations.

  • June 26, 1969

    Letter from Mario Crema to Pietro Nenni

    Crema outlines the current trends of Chinese foreign policy as Chinese mission leaders abroad gradually return and border tensions with the USSR arise.

  • July 11, 1969

    Report by Four Chinese Marshals, Chen Yi, Ye Jianying, Xu Xiangqian, and Nie Rongzhen, to the Central Committee, 'A Preliminary Evaluation of the War Situation' (excerpt)

    Four Chinese Marshals examine Sino-American-Soviet relations and analyze the possibility of an upcoming war. They assert that China must continue to develop as a strong proletarian country and an active player in the international arena, allying itself with neither the Americans nor the Soviets.

  • September 17, 1969

    Report by Four Chinese Marshals, Chen Yi, Ye Jianying, Nie Rongzhen, and Xu Xiangqian, to the Central Committee, 'Our Views about the Current Situation' (Excerpt)

    Four Chinese marshals examine recent Sino-American-Soviet relations. They recommend that China remains firm in negotiating with the two powers, both of which may be looking to strategically exploit China.

  • October 28, 1969

    Telegram Number 2142-08, 'Conversation with the Deputy-Minister of Foreign Affairs (Europe)'

    Luo Guibo is curious about developments in West German-Soviet relations and the Conference on European Security, while Etienne Manac’h inquires about China's appointment of ambassadors to Europe.

  • December 29, 1969

    Note on Exchanges of Opinions by the Ambassadors and Acting Ambassadors of Hungary, the GDR, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, Bulgaria, Poland, and Mongolia on the Subject of 'The PRC Position vis-a-vis the Socialist Countries' on 21 November and 3 December

    Ambassadors of Hungary, GDR, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, Bulgaria, Poland, and Mongolia discuss the development of socialism and Maoism in the PRC in relation to other countries in the socialist camp.

  • January 06, 1970

    Embassy of the GDR in the PR China, 'Note about the “Club Meeting” of the Ambassadors and Acting Ambassadors of Hungary, the GDR, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, Poland, Bulgaria, and Mongolia on 19 December 1969 in the Embassy of Mongolia'

    Ambassadors to China from Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, and Mongolia discuss Chinese preparations for war, Maoist groups in Western Europe and Japan, and other aspects of Chinese foreign policy.

  • March, 1970

    Report on the China Problem Following the 9th Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party

    This study addresses aspects of Chinese domestic and foreign policies after the 9th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. Internal party disputes and undemocratic structures are said to characterize the Chinese leadership. The document offers an analysis of the socio-political state of affairs in China and states that the delay in economic growth is due to violations of the economic principles of Socialism. As far as its foreign policy is concerned, China is strengthening its military potential; Beijing's intensified relations with Western countries are condemned.

  • December 30, 1970

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Political Affairs, Asia-Oceania, Note, 'State of the Chinese Question after Canada and Italy’s Recognition of Beijing and After the UN Discussion'

    Following the normalization of relations between Canada and Italy and China, the French Foreign Ministry speculates how China's status at the United Nations may change in the near future.

  • January, 1972

    The International Activities of the Chinese Leadership and Conclusions for the Practice of the GDR's Relations with the PR China

    The GDR Foreign Ministry outlines the current shifts in the PRC's foreign policy within the international community under the Mao group.

  • February 27, 1972

    Joint Communique between the United States and China

    The United States and China pledge to improve relations with one another in the famous "Shanghai Communique."

  • April 15, 1972

    Telegram from the Director of Department II to the Ambassador in Beijing regarding the Conversation with Chinese Diplomats in Moscow

    A Polish diplomat reports on new developments in Chinese foreign policy toward Europe, Japan, and Indonesia.

  • July 03, 1972

    East German Report on the Fifth Interkit Meeting in Prague, July 1972

    This East German report, issued after the Interkit meeting in Prague, addresses the domestic and foreign policies of China. It makes reference to internal conflicts destabilizing the Chinese leadership. China is said to be enhancing its military potential, especially in the area of missiles and nuclear weapons. Its aims in foreign policy are to acquire a leadership position in the so-called "Third World", to expand its relations with capitalist countries, to damage the unity of the Socialist bloc, and to obstruct the foreign relations of the Soviet Union. Considering the increase of influence of China on North Korea, Romania, and Vietnam, as well as on the Communist parties in Spain and Italy, the Socialist countries must improve their anti-Maoist propaganda efforts.

  • May 08, 1973

    Czechoslovak Record of Consultation of Eastern European Ambassadors in Beijing on the Situation in China

    This document argues that Chinese policy is determined by a negative attitude towards the Soviet Union, political campaigns, and persecution of the domestic opposition. The participants of the meeting identify two political blocs struggling for political power in China, and state that the role of the army to date remains unclear.

  • July 09, 1973

    Report by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on China's Policy toward Western Europe and Opposition against the CSCE

    This document contains information prepared by the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) on China's European policy and Chinese opposition to the convocation of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). It states that China's overall goals are diametrically opposed to those of the European Socialist countries and their Communist parties, with Beijing identifying the Soviet Union as its primary enemy. In this light, the Soviet leadership maintains that actively confronting China in ideological and political terms remains one of the most important tasks of the Warsaw Pact countries.

  • February 22, 1974

    Mao Zedong, 'On the Question of the Differentiation of the Three Worlds'

    Mao Zedong decsribes his Theory of Three Worlds, claiming that the “First World” is made up of the rich and nuclear armed USSR and US, the “Second World” refers to Japan, Europe, Australia, and Canada, and the “Third World” covers the undeveloped countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa.