Search in

Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • September 28, 1979

    High-Level Group Report on Modernization of NATO Nuclear Forces

    Report by High-Level Group (HLG) to NATO secretary general outlining recommendations for the modernization and deployment of NATO theater nuclear forces. 3 Appendices. A: Deployment and Personnel; B: Military Effects militari; C: Selected Long-Range Systems balance - Ground-based systems.

  • October 02, 1979

    Summary of Dutch Position on TNF Modernization for a Meeting Between US Secretary of Defense Harold Brown and Dutch Defense Minister Willem Scholten

    An outline of the Dutch position on the modernization of Theater Nuclear Forces (TNF) in Europe as of late 1979. It includes extensive discussion of Dutch domestic political challenges associated with supporting TNF modernization, the proposed connection between TNF modernization and the fate of SALT II as well as an enumeration of military/technical conditions under which TNF modernization would be viewed as more palatable by the Dutch government.

  • October 13, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Dutch Prime-Minister Van Agt and Italian Prime-Minister Francesco Cossiga

    Memorandum of an extended one-on-one conversation between the Dutch and Italian Prime Ministers focusing in particular on a description of the reasons for Italy's strong support for TNF modernization as outlined by Cossiga.

  • October 22, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Dutch Defense Minister Willem Scholten and US Deputy National Security Advisor David Aaron

    A conversation between Dutch Defense Minister Scholten and US Deputy National Security Advisor Aaron in which Aaron outlines and defends the United States' views of the Netherlands' position on TNF modernization.

  • October 24, 1979

    MAE cable report on Breznev's speech in East Berlin

    MAE report on the strategic value of Breznev's speech in East Berlino (6 ottobre 1979) concerning NATO nuclear forces modernization, the "negative guarantees" issue towards non nuclear countries, and unilateral withdrawal of Sovietici military personnel from the DRG.

  • October 31, 1979

    Letter from Jimmy Carter to Andreas A.M. Van Agt

    U.S. President Jimmy Carter writes to Prime Minister Van Agt about the Dutch proposal to cut NATO's TNF modernization proposal.

  • November 26, 1979

    Letter from Prime Minister Van Agt to President Carter

    Dutch Prime Minister van Agt responds to President Carter's concerns about a Dutch proposal to reduce NATO modernization. He writes that in light of Carter's concern, he will not press the Dutch proposal but that his government remains concerned over the size of the modernization program.

  • December, 1979

    Letter from the Dutch Minister of Defense to the Defense Ministers of Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Norway, and UK.

    The Dutch Defense Minister outlines opposition to NATO modernization proposals. He specifically mentions that the program seems not to take arms control efforts into account, while erring too high on the side of missile installation. He points out the tremendous political difficulties supporting such a move would have at home. Also included in this collection are short responses from the UK Minister of Defense.

  • December 04, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Dutch Prime-Minister Van Agt and Belgian Prime-Minister Wilfried Martens

    Van Agt and Martens discuss how their positions on TNF modernization are being affected by coalition politics within their respective legislatures.

  • December 05, 1979

    Exchange of notes, Defense Minister Scholten (also to other NATO Defense ministers) – British Defense Secretary for Defense

    Defense Minister Scholten writes to other NATO Defense Ministers to clarify the position of the Netherlands on TNF modernization. He focuses on issues related to the size of the modernization program, which in its current state he fears is too large, and also the possibility of separating the issues of making a decision on modernization and then implementing it. The British Defense Secretary then writes to refute each of his concerns on the wider issue of TNF modernization. An addendum focuses more specifically on the issues relating to the Netherlands.

  • December 06, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Dutch Prime Minister van Agt and British Prime Minister Thatcher

    Conversation between Dutch Prime Minister van Agt and British Prime Minister Thatcher. Also present were advisors Merckelbach and Alexander. Conversation centers on the political situation in the Netherlands, where resistance to TNF modernization has become widespread. Thatcher questions why the Dutch people fail to recognize the possible threat from the Soviet Union, suggesting "those who prefer being red over being dead ignore the many who are both red and dead."

  • December 07, 1979

    Draft conclusions from the discussions in Washington on December 7, 1979

    A summary of points made during U.S.-Dutch discussions related to TNF. The Dutch will not oppose NATO’s plans, but only postpone its own decision. However, the Dutch will continue to register their reservations regarding the scope of modernization. The U.S. disagrees with a Dutch proposal to link TNF modernization with SALT II ratification and states that the Dutch should refrain from critiquing TNF modernization since it is postponing its own decision on the issue.

  • December 07, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation, Prime-Minister Van Agt – President Carter (and others)

    Participants in the meeting included President Carter, Minister Vance, MP van Agt and also Min. Van der Klaauw, Zbigniew Brzezinksi, David Aaron, Tammenoms Bakker, and Merckelbach. Conversation revolves around TNF modernization and arms negotiation with the Soviet Union. Both parties discuss domestic difficulties shaping how these issues are presented and pursued.

  • December 07, 1979

    Memorandum of Conversation between Dutch Prime Minister Van Agt, Secretary Vance, NSA Brzezinski, and Minister Van der Klaauw

    Memorandum of conversation between Secretary Vance, National Security Advisor Brzezinski, Dutch Prime Minister Van Agt, and Minister Van der Klaauw. The conversation focuses on Dutch domestic sentiment toward TNF modernization and SALT II.

  • December 10, 1979

    Major points from the discussions in Brussels, Rome, London, Washington, Bonn

    An outline of key points made in each of several meetings over a one week period. Includes the following: the Netherlands and Belgium will try to decide as late and as simultaneously as possible on TNF modernization; Italy will try to help the Dutch influence FRG and U.S. positions; U.K. is committed to helping Dutch cabinet remain intact; FRG does not oppose the Dutch move to delay their decision but also believes Netherlands should not try to block NATO decision-making.

  • December 11, 1979

    Result deliberations Belgian core-cabinet

    Information obtained by the Dutch government regarding Belgian discussions on the modernization of NATO’s intermediate nuclear weapons. The Belgian cabinet agrees that TNF should be linked with arms negotiations, with a reevalutation of progress every 6 months used to direct modernization, in order to guarantee the lowest possible level of military balancing.

  • 1980

    Military Exercise Report of the Decision of the Commander of the Maritime Front for an Offensive Operation

    A note to the Chief of Staff of the GDR People's Navy, this document assesses the enemy position and military capabilities in the Baltic Sea, the Jutland Peninsula, and the North Sea. The document notes that the NATO forces are capable of delivering nuclear weapons. The stated objective of the exercise is to remove the enemy's nuclear weapons capabilities, to defeat enemy forces defending the Jutland Peninsula, and thereby to create conditions under which Warsaw Pact forces may then reach the North Sea.

  • 1980

    Missile Madness: The New Weapons Systems and How They Threaten Your Life

    Socialist Workers Party pamphlet arguing that the current nuclear arms threat is much more serious than in the past due to the development of new cruise missiles. It calls for people to stand up against the missiles and recognize nuclear weapons as a class issue integrated with the wider Socialist Workers Party platform.

  • 1982

    The Nuclear North Atlantic

    Speeches from a European Nuclear Disarmament Conference in Glasgow with an introduction from EP Thompson on the strategic importance of the North Atlantic Ocean in NATO and the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons programs. Contains a speech from Olafur Grimsson, future President of Iceland, on the importance of links between countries, such as Norway, Denmark, and Greenland, in opposing the stationing or launching of missiles from the region. Calls for turning the North Atlantic Ocean into a nuclear free zone. Followed by a speech from activist Angus McCormack protesting the expansion of Stornoway Airport in Scotland, and the assumed militarization of the region that would ensue. Describes the creation of Keep NATO Out, the local group that opposed expansion plans, and its dealings with the Ministry of Defense/NATO.

  • May 18, 1983

    Information for Soviet Embassies on the Strategic Arms Reduction Negotiations

    Report on the progress of negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), complaining that the American proposals are not acceptable from the Soviet perspective.