December 04, 1964
Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'European Political Cooperation'
Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns reports on a discussion he had with Jean Monnet on the EEC and the Multilateral Force (MLF), including topics such as the interconnection between these issues, the risk of a German nuclear force, and transatlantic relations in general. Luns also met with Undersecretary of State Ball, who was keen on moving ahead with the MLF and proposed holding a conference about it in The Hague, which Luns had to decline. Luns furthermore met with Minister of Foreign Affairs Couve de Murville, who put the blame with the Americans for inciting thoughts about nuclear independence on the part of the Germans. Minister of Defense De Jong responds by giving a broad military-strategic analysis, concluding that unity within NATO is essential to prevent American attention from shifting increasingly to Asia.
January 20, 1965
Minutes of the Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact Member States, Warsaw
(Excerpts) Minutes of discussions of the Warsaw Pact Political Consultative Committee concerning non-proliferation. The Romanian delegation argues against a joint declaration of the Warsaw Pact on non-proliferation for fear that it might be used against China. The other delegations argue that a joint declaration is necessary in order to prevent the creation of the Multilaterall Nuclear Force proposed by NATO.
March 12, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini
The report examines the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance and the uncertainty of the current phase, which consists of forces not always appropriate to its cohesion. Alessandrini analyzes both the transformations in the international context and those inside NATO, the issue of political, economic and military consultation, the debate about the multilateral force and ANF. The conclusion underlines - despite all the current problems - the positive results of the history of NATO, an alliance that represents to date not only the deterrence against possible Soviet threats, but also the most important interlocutor in an eventual East-West dialogue.
April 26, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Nuclear Problems'
The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to nuclear problems, the document hopes for a gradual way out from NATO's current paralysis, through a process of integration, rather then the attempt to solve also these problems by mere coordination among the Allies.
May 31, 1965
Draft Telegram to Italian Embassies and Permanent Representative to NATO
The telegram announces that the Italian government welcomes MacNamara's proposal of establishing a restricted Atlantic Nuclear Committee. This proposal is in the context of a necessary widening of the Atlantic nuclear responsibilities that now are concentrated in Washington.
June 02, 1965
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Committee'
The note describes the proposal made by MacNamara as the most recent element of the US political-strategic thinking. The document explains MacNamara's proposal from its origins to the current situation. The document analyzes the position of various countries, with a focus on the Italian one and some points which still need to be sorted out. Italy seems interested in participating in the proposed Committee.
October 13, 1965
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special committee proposed by MacNamara'
The note is about MacNamara's proposal to establish a Special Committee in order to broaden Allies' participation in the strategic planning of US nuclear deterrent and to reach a more efficient process of political consultation. The document outlines some points related to Italy's position.
November 22, 1965
Message by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee meeting, 27th November - Conversation with Cleveland '
Alessandrini reports a personal conversation with Cleveland, concerning the forthcoming meeting of the Committee of Ministers of Defense of the Alliance, recently proposed by MacNamara. Italy's position should be considered positively because it seems flexible and well-balanced.
December 01, 1965
Report, 'Use of nuclear weapons'
The document is a detailed analysis about the possible use of NATO's nuclear weapons, in preparation for the Atlantic Council's December session. The French participation in the Council and the French opposition to any nuclear integration will probably leave this issue without a solution. From their point of view, the US and the Select Committee recently proposed by them should try to overcome the hindrance represented by France, at the same time without jeopardizing the cohesion of the Alliance.
December 29, 1965
Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'
The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.
April 30, 1966
Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee. Meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense (London, 28th-29th April 1966)'
The report describes the second meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense, during which a discussion about the planning, the use and the political control of tactical nuclear weapons has taken place. The document analyzes the SACEUR's position, the data related to the opposing armed forces existing in the European theater; the possible hypothesis of local conflicts and the problems related to the various scenarios. The London meeting was "open-ended", without leading to any concrete decision, and the topic appeared more complex than expected. The document observes that within the NATO there are diverging opinions on these matters.
July 28, 1966
Letter by Andrea Cagiati of Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP) to Andreotti
The Diplomatic Adviser Andrea Cagiati - after 4 years of service in NATO - will be moved to Madrid and he sends Andreotti the following: 1) his personal opinions with regards to the meeting recently held in Paris by the MacNamara Committee (document dated 29th July 1966); 2) a note titled "Special MacNamara Committee" - Paris meeting (26th July 1966), dated 28th July, which reports the evolution of the discussions. The recent meeting highlights a difference of approach with regards to the extent and the tasks that face the new committee. The document analyzes the issue of nuclear sharing from both a military-political and a psychological side and the main NATO countries' positions.
February 22, 1967
US Department of State, Oral Note, 'Interpretations Regarding Draft Non-Proliferation Treaty Formulations'
As an assurance to the Germans and other NATO allies, ACDA and the State Department drew up a memorandum on the interpretation of the NPT draft treaty. The key point was that the treaty “deals only with what is prohibited, not what is permitted.”
October 06, 1967
General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Summary Report of the 2nd Nuclear Planning Group meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Ankara, 28-29 September 1967)'
The document reports the evolution of the meeting. Italy was there represented by the new Minister of Defense Tremelloni, the Chief of Staff Aloia, the diplomat Alessandrini (RICA) and others. Topics discussed: possible use of ADM; possible use of tactical nuclear weapons; ABM; Italian participation in military nuclear planning; information about the nuclear weapons deployed in NATO countries. Aloia believes that the discussion was fruitful, keeping in mind the complexity of the nuclear issues, that have just recently been able to count on permanent bodies appropriate to deal with them at a political level. France's negative behavior caused a postponement of the discussion about many military-political topics in the last years.
May 18, 1972
Speech by the Minister of Defense Franco Restivo, 'Tactical use of nuclear weapons, in see, in the Mediterranean area' (NPG, Copenhagen, May 1972)
Speech by the Minister of Defense providing an overview of the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in Copenhagen. Focuses on the problems of "when" and "why" of employment of nuclear arms in Europe.