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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the morning demonstration in Wenceslas Square and overheard conversations.

  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the student strike situation.

  • November 21, 1989

    Teleprint from the Presidium of the CC CPS to the Secretaries of Regional Committees of the CPCz [and] CPS and the Party Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    The Presidium reports recent anti-socialist disturbances in Prague, with the organizers allegedly influencing and manipulating the public, especially targeting students. It is emphasized that the CPCz and CPS must maintain order, and affirm the socialist position through media outlets.

  • November 21, 1989

    Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney.

    Gorbachev and Mulroney discuss US interference in Eastern Europe and increasing cooperation with Western Europe. They also briefly discuss George Bush's leadership.

  • November 23, 1989

    Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague

    The Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague calling for a general strike

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint, 'Summary of the Demands Made by Opposition Groups Represented by the Civic Forum'

    The demands for reform by the Civic Forum and the anti-communism movement in Czechoslovakia are outlined, in regards to the legal system, political system, economy, and a general re-structuring of power. The general decline in support of the CPCz and growth of support for opposition groups is apparent.

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint from Jozef Lenárt, Secretary of CC CPS, to Regional Committees and Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    Lenart presents information on an upcoming strike, planned by a now-unified organization of protesters called the Civic Forum. He reports the demands of the Civic Forum, explicated in their proclamation.

  • November 24, 1989

    Draft Thesis of the Program of the Civic Forum, Prague

    Draft thesis of the program of the civic forum, Prague advocating a market economy to help remedy the ‘vassal’ system of the Communist Party and the crisis facing Czechoslovakia

  • November 24, 1989

    Speech by Premier Ladislav Adamec at the Extraordinary Session of the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee

    This transcript shows the Czech party elites choosing against violent repression of the mass protests in Wenceslas Square. More clearly than in almost any other Party document, the reasons for nonviolence are spelled out: such a solution would only temporarily "return calm," it would radicalize the youth, "the international support of the socialist countries can no longer be counted on," and "the capitalist states" might react with a "political and economic boycott."

  • November 24, 1989

    Memorandum of Conversation Austrian Chancellor Franz Vranitzky and East German Prime Minister Hans Modrow, East-Berlin

    The conversation details various changes needed in the GDR, including within the economy, electoral law, and foreign relations. They further discuss Austria's role in the two German states.

  • November 24, 1989

    Information by the East German Office of National Security on the Austrian Assessment of the Situation in the GDR and the Development of Austrian–East German Relations, Berlin (East)

    The document recounts the discussion between party officials from Austria's People's Party and Socialist Party in regards to changing developments in East and West Germany. Based on historical, political, and economic precedent, the overwhelming sentiment is against reunification. However, due to the rapidness of political events in the GDR the Socialist Party had yet to decide how to react. The parties then outline a plan to establish connections from both East and West German leadership as well as resistance movements in Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia.

  • November 26, 1989

    List of Goals by the Civic Forum, 26 November 1989

    The Civic Forum, the organizing voice for Czech opposition groups during the Velvet Revolution, outlines their goals for a future Czechoslovak Republic. This includes new program goals including individual rights, the political system, foreign policy, national economy, social justice, the environment, and culture.

  • November 28, 1989

    Teleprint, Information on the Conclusions of Nationwide Party Congress held in Prague

    The objectives of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia are outlined, as a result of the nationwide party congress on 28 November in Prague.

  • November 28, 1989

    Internal Organization of the Civic Forum

    Internal organization of the Civic Forum – structure, function, and areas of concern

  • December 28, 1989

    The Position of the Civic Forum and Public Against Violence Toward the Negotiations with Czechoslovak Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague

    The Position of the Civic Forum and Public Against Violence Toward the Negotiations with Czechoslovak Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague, discussing demands for condemnation of 1968 invasion and promises made by the Prime Minister to the Civic Forum

  • November 28, 1989

    Decision About the Measures Regarding the Decision of the KGB Collegium of the USSR of 5 September 1989, 'About the Tasks of the State Security Services of the USSR Regarding the Defense of the Soviet Constitutional Regime'

    In response to the increase of anti-Soviet and Romanian nationalist propaganda, the Moldavian KGB decides to form a new organization, Section 3, "to provide a principled basis for the activity concerning the defense of the Soviet constitutional regime." Detailed instructions are given for the new Sections operations and activities.

  • November 29, 1989

    Instructions of the Coordinating Center of the Civic Forum for the Local Forums with a Recommendation for Policy Toward the Communists, Prague

    Instructions of the Coordinating Center of the Civic Forum for the Local Forums with a Recommendation for Policy Toward the Communists and information on how to deal with Communists infiltrating the Civic Forum branches

  • December 02, 1989

    Notes by A. S. Chernyaev, Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush at Malta Summit

    George H.W. Bush and Gorbachev meet off the coast of Malta in a meeting that came to symbolize the end of the Cold War. While no agreements were concluded, the leaders decided to press ahead in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), as well as in efforts to reduce arsenals of chemical weapons and conventional forces in Europe. Bush also made a number of proposals to advance bilateral relations, including steps to normalize trade relations through the granting of most-favored nation status, efforts to bar Congressional restrictions on credits, and US support for Soviet observer status at the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

  • December 02, 1989

    US Memorandums of Conversation, George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at Malta Summit, 2-3 December 1989

    US transcripts of Bush and Gorbachev's conversations on board the Soviet cruise ship, Maxim Gorky, off the coast of Malta.

  • December 04, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s handwritten Notes on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit at the Meeting of the Warsaw Pact Leaders in Moscow on 4 December

    Unofficial hand-written notes by Rezső Nyers, President of the Hungarian Socialist Party, taken took during a briefing by M. Gorbachev at a Soviet Bloc summit in Moscow on 4 December, just a day after the meeting with President Bush at Malta.