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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • February 23, 1972

    Memorandum from Ray Cline, Director, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, to Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms, enclosing 'Possibility of an Indian Nuclear Test'

    At the request of Undersecretary of State John Irwin, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) prepared an assessment which included a detailed review of Indian’s nuclear facilities and their capacity to produce weapons-grade plutonium as well as capabilities to deliver nuclear weapons to a target. While India had signed agreements with Canada and the United States that nuclear reactors were to be used for peaceful purposes, the Indians were likely to claim that an explosive device for “peaceful” purposes was consistent with the agreements. Whether the Indians were going to test in the near future was in doubt. INR could not “rule out” one in the near future. Further, the “strongest incentive [to test] may well be the desire for the increased status of a nuclear power.” All the same, “it our judgment that a decision to authorize a test is unlikely in the next few months and may well be deferred for several years.” Weighing against a test were the financial and diplomatic costs, for example, “India's full awareness that assistance from the US and other countries (possibly including the USSR) would be jeopardized.”

  • February 24, 1972

    Report on the Visit of Saddam Hussein to the USSR

    During the visit of Saddam Hussein to the Soviet Union, the delegation discussed with Soviet leaders the need for strengthening Iraqi-Soviet relations to give positive guidance on the situation in the Middle East. The Iraqi delegation also promoted their intention to develop relations with other Arab states in order to decrease the effects of imperialism. Topics of discussion also included Iraqi oil policy and domestic conflict.

  • February 27, 1972

    Joint Communique between the United States and China

    The United States and China pledge to improve relations with one another in the famous "Shanghai Communique."

  • February 29, 1972

    Letters, David B. Vaughan to C.V. Narasimhan and the Secretary-General

    Vaughan sends Narasimhan letters concerning UNCURK's budget and United Nations Cemetery in Pusan.

  • February 29, 1972

    Stenographic Transcript of the Joint Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and of the Council of Ministers of the Socialist Republic of Romania (Nixon's Visit to China)

    This stenographic transcript of a meeting of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and the Romanian Council of Ministers addresses US President Richard Nixon's visit to China in 1971. Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu evaluates the outcomes of the visit positively, arguing that despite fundamental differences between China and the US, the talks have opened the door to improving the political and economic cooperation between the two countries. Ceauşescu further discusses the implications of the Sino-US rapprochement for Romania and the official position his country should adopt in its relations with China.

  • March 01, 1972

    Letters between Ahmet H. Ozbudun and C.V. Narasimhan

    Ozbudun sends Narasimhan a letter on representatives on UNCURK, new economic measures of the ROK, and working-level meeting of the North-South Red Cross Organizations.

  • March 03, 1972

    Briefing Book Prepared for Josif Tito on the Upcoming Visit of the President of UAR Anwar El Sadat to Yugoslavia

    Broad overview of international relations and current events including preparations for President Sadat's visit to Yugoslavia.

  • March 04, 1972

    Report by Etre Sándor, 'Korean opinion on various current issues'

    A report by Etre Sandor on a conversation between Pak Seong-cheol and Frigyes Puja regarding Nixon’s visit to China, Chinese-North Korean-Soviet relations, and the situation inside North Korea.

  • March 05, 1972

    Information on Y.Andropov Meeting with Bulgarian Leadership During his Visit to Sofia

  • March 07, 1972

    US Embassy Canada cable 391 to State Department, 'India’s Nuclear Intentions'

    U.S. embassy officials report on an interview with Lauren Gray, the chairman of Canada’s Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), who had recently visited India. Having spoken with Homi Nusserwanji Sethna, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, and other officials, Gray believed that Sethna opposed a test and that as long as Sethna and Indira Gandhi were in office “there was no chance” that India would test a nuclear device, which would take three to four years to prepare. Other officials with the AECB disagreed with Gray's estimates - based on their assessment of Indian’s ability to produce weapons grade plutonium, they argued that it would take no more than a year to produce a device. They also pointed out that about 18 months earlier there had been a “blackout” of statistical information on plutonium production in India.

  • March 07, 1972

    Preliminary Meeting between Delegates of North and South Korea focusing on Official Visits

    This meeting lays out the specific procedure of how official visits are to be carried out between North Korea and South Korea.

  • March 08, 1972

    Letters between Ahmet H. Ozbudun and C.V. Narasimhan

    Ozbudun sends Narasimhan a letter on Mr. Marshall Green's visit to the ROK, the doubling of Japan-DPRK trade during 1972, ROK-DPRK Red Cross talks: 3th working committee meeting, and USSR-DPRK contacts.

  • March 09, 1972

    State Department cable 40378 to US Embassy Ottawa, 'Indian Nuclear Intentions'

    During a discussion with the Canadian embassy counselor, U.S. country desk director David Schneider opined that Indian was unlikely to test a device in the “near future” but he wanted Ottawa’s prognosis. Schneider was also interested in whether the Soviets, with their close relationship with India, might be able to use their influence to “deter” a test. If India tested, the U.S. could respond with a “strong statement,” but whether “punitive” measures would be taken would depend on whether the test “violated existing agreements.” In October 1970, the State Department had cautioned the Indians that a “peaceful nuclear explosion” was indistinguishable from a weapons test and that the test of a nuclear device would be incompatible with U.S.-Indian nuclear assistance agreements.

  • March 10, 1972

    Handwritten comments on 'Korean opinion on various current issues'

    A note attached to the report by Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on North Korea’s opinions on various issues in 1972.

  • March 10, 1972

    Preliminary Meeting Between Delegates of North and South Korea During Which the Details of Official Visits Laid Out by the South are Accepted

    This exchange is the North's response to their previous meeting during which the South laid out the specific details it had in mind for official visits. The North accepts thyese details and awaits the next meeting where the South will give a specific time for its official visit to the North.

  • March 13, 1972

    Note on a Conversation with the 1st Secretary of the USSR Embassy, Comrade Kurbatov, on 10 March 1972 in the GDR Embassy

    During the conversation there was an exchange of opinions on the following questions: 1. The DPRK Position on the Nixon Visit to Beijing and its Influence on the Situation in Korea, 2. Conversation of Comrade Brezhnev with Foreign Minister Ho Dam in Moscow, 3. Some Aspects of KWP Activity in the Communist World Movement, 4. 60th Birthday of Kim Il Sung on 15 April

  • March 14, 1972

    US Embassy Canada Cable 430 to State Department, 'India’s Nuclear Intentions on South Asia Situation'

    Elaborating on his earlier cable and responding to the general issues raised by the Department’s 9 March message, science attaché Hudson questioned Lauren Gray’s evaluation of Sethna, suggesting that by combining “guile” and “technical proficiency,” the latter could easily have “easily misled” the Canadian. Based on consultations with a variety of Canadian insiders with knowledge of and experience with the Indian nuclear program, the Embassy saw no technical or fiscal barriers to an Indian test. Moreover, any pressure on India not to test would increase the “likelihood” of that happening.

  • March 14, 1972

    Report from Bartha János, 'Visit of the DPRK's ambassador'

    A report by Bartha Janos on the visit of North Korean ambassador Pak Gyeong-sun, discussing North Korea’s relations with Netherlands and Sweden.

  • March 14, 1972

    Preliminary Discussion between North and South Korea at the Freedom House in Panmunjeom on Official Visits

    During this meeting the details of official visits are discussed with the South stating that Jang Gi-yeong (ex-Vice Premier and current President of Hankook Ilbo) and his assistant Jeoung Tae- Yyeon (Hankook Ilbo correspondent to Japan) would visit the North at 12:00, April 25th. Further, the delegate from North Korea suggests that their should be a meeting between such high-ranking officials as Lee Hu-rak (Director of the KCIA) and Kim Yeong-ju (the Director of Organization and Guidance) with the North in agreement to this proposal

  • March 15, 1972

    Record of a Conversation between Czechoslovak Ambassador and Rakhmanin in Moscow on Nixon's Visit to China

    This conversation record outlines the results of US President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China, and notes the determination of the Soviet Union to impede rapprochement between the US and China. In the second part, the Soviet Central Committee member P.B. Rakhmanin examines the strategic implications of the visit for the US spheres of influence in Europe and Asia.