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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • July 06, 1965

    Note, A. S. Gonsalves to Ministry of External Affairs, 'Nuclear Guarantee'

    Pakistan refutes a nuclear umbrella from the superpowers because she thought it to be inconsistent with the proposal of non-dissemination and denuclearization.

  • July 23, 1965

    Record of Conversation between Vice-Foreign Minister Qiao Guanhua and North Korean Ambassador in China Pak Se-chang

    Qiao Guanhua and Pak Se-chang discuss the four-party meeting between China, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the United Arab Republic (Egypt), the Afro-Asian Conference, and the situation in Algeria.

  • September 09, 1965

    Conversation between Chairman Liu Shaoqi and Premier Zhou Enlai and Charge d'Affaires Jeong Bong-gyu at the 17th National Day Reception held at the North Korean Embassy

    Liu Shaoqi and Jeong Bong-gyu discuss the Indo-Pak War, the likelihood of holding the Second Asian-African Conference, and the war in Vietnam.

  • September 11, 1965

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in North Korea, 'On North Korea's Response to the Indian Invasion of Pakistan'

    The Chinese Embassy in Pyongyang reports that North Korea's reaction to the Indo-Pak War has been timid.

  • October 28, 1965

    Note of the Audience of Liu Fang, Ambassador of the Chinese People’s Republic in Bucharest, with Emil Bodnaras, First Vice-President of the Council of Ministers of the S. R. of Romania

    This document describes the reporting of Chinese Ambassador to Romania, Liu Fang, on certain international situations, including US-Romanian relations in connection with Vietnam, US-Vietnam relations, and developments in Pakistan.

  • January 20, 1966

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE 4-66, 'The Likelihood of Further Nuclear Proliferation'

    This estimate updated an estimate (NIE-4-2-64) published in 1964 of the nuclear proliferation problem. That estimate, like this one, overestimated the likelihood of an Indian bomb, while somewhat underestimating Israel’s program. This assessment followed the same pattern—predicting India would produce a weapon within a “few years” and also putting Israel in the “might” category, although treating it as a “serious contender” nonetheless. Also following a short discussion of the “snowball effect” (later known as “proliferation cascades” or “chains”) suggesting that the United Arab Republic (Egypt-Syria) and Pakistan were likely to take the nuclear option should India or Israel go nuclear.

  • August 12, 1966

    Intelligence Note 506 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Will Communist China Give Nuclear Aid to Pakistan?'

    Intelligence reports about recent visits to Beijing by Pakistani defense and science officials raised questions whether China was or would be providing nuclear aid to Pakistan. The latter was already developing close relations with China, a matter which was of great concern to U.S. policymakers, but INR analyst Thomas Thornton concluded that Pakistan was highly unlikely to seek a significant degree of Chinese nuclear assistance.

  • June 02, 1967

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Discussion with the Soviet Foreign Ministry on the direction of India’s foreign policy. Topics covered include Indian opposition to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; India’s position on the escalating tensions between Egypt and Israel; the possible establishment of a new Asian regional economic bloc; and the recent decision by the United States to eliminate military aid to both India and Pakistan. Soviet policy towards India and Pakistan is also discussed, including the possibility of providing military supplies to Pakistan.

  • November 23, 1967

    Cable, 'India Visit by the Federal Chancellor'

    Description of Federal Chancellor Kiesinger's visit to India, summarizing the issues he discusses with Indira Ghandi during his stay there. First, Kiesinger explains the position of West Germany regarding the Vietnam War, issues in the Middle East, the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and German trade with China. Indira Gandhi then raises a number of issues, including German-Indian relations, India's conflicts with Pakistan and China, India's current domestic problems, and a concluding hope that West Germany and India can deepen relations.

  • April 12, 1968

    Memorandum, Permanent Mission of Hungary to the U.N. to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Memorandum of conversations between Hungarian delegate to the UN with Soviet, Yugoslav and Romanian counterparts on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • August 21, 1968

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on the results of Indian President Zakir Hussain's visit to Moscow, including discussion of Soviet-Indian relations broadly and India's relations with Pakistan, as well as on Soviet efforts to pressure India to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

  • December 23, 1968

    Note about a Conversation between Comrade Herrmann and Comrade Putivez, 2nd Secretary of the USSR Embassy, on 9 December 1968 in the USSR Embassy

    Hermann questioned Putiwtz on North Korea's foreign policy, including its relations with other socialist countries, Pakistan, and capitalist coutries while Putiwitz discussed economic cooperation and political relations between the Soviet Union and North Korea.

  • June 11, 1971

    Telex (coded) No. 2941: Visit by the Indian Foreign Minister to Bonn

    Speaking with the West German Foreign Minister, Minister Swaran Singh thanked him for German assistance in dealing with refugees from East Pakistan while highlighting the threat of radicalization and Vietnamization if a long-term political solution is not found. India asked West Germany to apply pressure on Pakistan to stop the refugee stream, but Germany stressed that achieving a reasonable political solution is an internal Pakistani matter, though he pledged to discuss the issue in an upcoming meeting with President Nixon.

  • June 20, 1971

    Conversation of Cde. Nicolae Ceausescu and Cde. Zhou Enlai at the Embassy

    Notes regarding the conversation of Cde. Nicolae Ceausescu and Cde. Zhou Enlai at the dinner organized by the [Romanian] embassy in honor of the Chinese leadership.

  • January 03, 1972

    Note About the Main Points of a Statement by the Acting Ambassador of the USSR Embassy in the GDR, Comrade Gorinovich, to the GDR Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, Comrade Oskar Fischer

    Report discussing conflicts on the Indian subcontinent, and the Soviet Union policy toward these conflicts. Report is critical of Pakistan's aggression, especially in East Pakistan. Discusses Soviet Union warnings against Pakistan aggression, and subsequent steps taken in the international community to curb this aggression (and responses by US, China, and other states). Concludes by touching on the newly formed state of Bangladesh.

  • January 12, 1972

    Note about a Meeting of Foreign Minister Otto Winzer with the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi

    Minutes of a meeting between East German Foreign Minister Otto Winzer and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The two begin by discussing the national liberation of Bangladesh, which both countries express mutual support for. They then discuss India-Pakistan hostility, and blame Western countries for trying to keep the two states separate, and express hope for peace between India and Pakistan. Winzer then pushes for Indira Gandhi to normalize relations with East Germany. Gandhi gives a non-committal response, and the report concludes by speculating that Indira Gandhi has not yet decided to normalize relations, noting that some of her advisors will wait on the opinions of the FRG before moving on GDR.

  • January 14, 1972

    State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research Intelligence Note, 'India to Go Nuclear?'

    The State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) evaluates the available intelligence on India’s nuclear intentions. There were varying reports that India would test a device that month, sometime in 1972, or that the government was undertaking a program to test a “peaceful nuclear explosive.” According to INR, India had the capability to produce some 20-30 weapons, and it could easily test a device in an underground site, such as an abandoned mine, that would be hard to discover. Because the U.S. government had given a “relatively modest priority to... relevant intelligence collection activities” a “concerted effort by India to conceal such preparations... may well succeed.” What would motivate India to test, the analysts opined, were domestic political pressures and concerns about China and Pakistan.

  • June 26, 1972

    US Mission Geneva Cable 2755 to State Department, 'Japanese-Pakistani Conversations Regarding Indian Nuclear Plans'

    Report on conversations between Japanese officials and a Pakistani source who indicated the location of the upcoming Indian nuclear test. The cable expressed doubts about the information, suggesting that the "stir" "may have been created largely on personal basis" by the Pakistani source.

  • December, 1972

    Report from Várkonyi József 'The visit of Korean ambassador Pak Gyeong-sun'

    A report by Varkonyi Jozsef on the visit of North Korean ambassador Pak Gyeong-sun, regarding the Korean Commission of the UN and North Korea’s relations with the Netherlands.

  • October 11, 1973

    Meeting of Prime Minister Trudeau and Premier Zhou Enlai at the State Guest House (Diaoyutai)

    Zhou Enlai offers Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau an extensive history of the Chinese Civil War and Chinese Revolution. Zhou also comments on China's foreign policy positions toward and views on the Soviet Union, nuclear war, Bangladesh, revisionism, and great power hegemony, among other topics.