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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 18, 1961

    Appendix to 'Summary of Meeting between Ambassador to Arab States Kiesewetter and General Secretary Belhocine and Head of Bureau Waker'

    Note from Algeria's Socialist Countries Bureau describing the June 17, 1961 meeting with the GDR Ambassador to Arab Countries. Note explains that the East German government is contemplating the unilateral "de jure" recognition of Algeria's government, and recommends that Algeria does not oppose this recognition.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • September 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, Tahmaz Beqari, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The ambassador reports on the proceedings of the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries, and about the differences and nuances of the stances of various delegations. Except India, Libya, and the United Arab Republic, all delegations were in favor of China’s participation in the United Nations. In addition, Nehru pointed out that colonialism is in agony while the Ghanaian, Cuban, Iraqi, Nepalese and Ethiopian delegations claimed to the contrary. When Dorticós, the Cuban President, began unmasking American imperialism, the diplomats of Western countries left the conference. The diplomats of friendly countries, according to Beqari, called the speeches of the conference “80% positive.”

  • October 14, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Vice Premier Chen Yi and the Albanian Ambassador to China Reis Malile

    Chen Yi and Reis Malile discuss Sino-Albanian trade and Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic.

  • December 29, 1961

    Cable from the Foreign Cultural Liaison Committee, 'Request to Send Culture and Friendship Delegation to Visit Africa'

    The PRC Foreign Cultural Liaison Committee proposes to send a propaganda team to Guinea, Mali, Egypt, Morocco, Ghana, Tunisia, Syria, and Iraq.

  • 1962

    The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt

    Document describes a renewal of tensions between the Brotherhood and the Egyptain government over extremist desires to create an Islamic state. Description of how the Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt organized competing 'Islamic Conferences.'

  • 1962

    The Brotherhood's Agreement with Egypt

    Document about a secret rapprochement between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian government.

  • 1962

    The Algerian Problem: Comparison with the Chinese Struggle

    Document comparing the Algerian struggle against France with that of China, arguing that the Algerian struggle cannot be compared, and is much more difficult than that of the Chinese. Asserts that Algerian situation is unique and unprecedented, in terms of colonized struggles, and that the Algerian revolution both represents, more generally, Africa's revolutionary hopes and that it has gained the support of communists, who hope to see Western powers swept from the African continent. Concludes by saying that Algeria's success rests on two factors; the FLN, and foreign support from anti-colonial forces from around the world.

  • January 18, 1962

    Note to the GPRA Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Mission to Cuba'

    Report from Lakhdar Brahimi -- GPRA representative at celebration of Cuban revolution in Havana -- on meeting with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, both of whom express considerable interest in Algerian revolution. Fidel Castro pledges Cuban support, both material and diplomatic, advises Algeria on how to proceed in negotiations with France, and strongly encourages the opening of an Algerian diplomatic mission in Cuba. Brahimi concludes with recommendations on how best to respond to Cuban suggestions and an outline of potential strategic benefits from a diplomatic relationship between two countries.

  • January 31, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ‘Confidential Note to the Heads of Missions and Delegations'

    Confidential note from Algeria's Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the heads of Algeria's diplomatic missions and delegations. The note, written in Cairo on January 31, 1962, focuses on the position that African and Asian countries currently hold at the center of a global struggle between colonialists and neo-colonialists. Points out that Algeria's struggle with France remains a focal point of reference for these countries, and that Algeria must clearly define its foreign policies and positions on international issues.

  • February 10, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the GPRA Ministry of the Interior, ‘Material Assistance’

    1962 letter from Saad Dahlab -- Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs -- to Algeria's Ministry of the Interior, detailing Albania's offer for material support for the Algerian cause.

  • June 19, 1962

    Fifth Official Meeting Between the Delegation of the Albanian Labor Party and the Delegation of the Chinese Communist Party

    Albanian leaders Hysni Kapo and Ramiz Alia meet with a Chinese delegation to discuss industrialization in Communist countries, specificallyAlbania's five-year plan. The Albanians complain about being excluded from international meetings of the socialist countries. The Chinese update the Albanians on their position of supporting Jiang Jieshi over the "Two Chinas" objective of the United States and their relations with other countries throughout Asia, while encouraging the Albanians to reach out to the Muslim nations of Africa.

  • September 10, 1962

    Letter, A. Stepunin to Comrade A.K. Narzikulov

    The Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Ties with Foreign Countries asks Tajikistan to nominate members for trips to the Middle East.

  • October 16, 1962

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Görög), Report on Algerian Prime Minister Ben Bella’s visit to Cuba

    Chargé d’Affaires ad Interim Erzsébet Görög reports on Algerian Prime Minister Ben Bella’s visit to Havana. Before Ben Bella’s arrival, Cuban press highlighted the common experiences of Algerian and Cuban national independence. Görög describes Ben Bella’s reception at the airport and speeches given by Castro and Ben Bella. For example, Castro used clear Marxist terminology in his remarks while Ben Bella spoke of social progress and the common.

  • October 28, 1962

    Letter from Premier Zhou Enlai to His Excellency Ne Win

    Zhou Enlai writes to Ne Win in order to clarify China's positions on the Line of Actual Control and the Sino-Indian border dispute.

  • April 05, 1963

    Memorandum of Telephone Conversation Between the Assistant Secretary State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Talbot and the President's Deputy Special Counsel Feldman

    President Kennedy and Israeli Deputy Defense Minister Shimon Peres discussed the possibility of UAR intervention in Jordan. Peres stated that "the UAR is the only Arab country that Israel really fears."

  • May 22, 1963

    Research Memorandum RFE-40 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Acting Secretary, 'A French Nuclear Testing Site in the Pacific? – Plans and Repercussions'

    France’s staging of atmospheric and underground tests in Algeria became increasingly untenable when neighboring African countries protested and even temporarily broke diplomatic relations with Paris. Once Algeria became independent in 1962, French authorities made plans to develop a test site in Polynesia.

  • October 21, 1963

    Flavio Bravo, Deputy Commander of the Cuban Forces in Algeria, to Raúl Castro, Algiers

    Flavio Bravo, deputy commander of the Cuban forces in Algeria, to Raúl Castro, Algiers, pp. 2-3 regarding the situation in Algeria and the behavior of different factions

  • December 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Vladimir Koucky, Secretary of Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz) Central Committee, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Head of Cuba’s National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA), Prague

    The memorandum includes topics discussed between CPCz Secretary Vladimír Koucký and Cuban government official Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Rodríguez lists points of misunderstanding between Cuba and other socialist countries. Discussion topics include Chinese publications in Cuba, Cuba's unique approach to socialist revolution, the proposed nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and building socialism under various conditions (e.g. Islam's role in Algeria), among others. Rodríguez encourages more communication among socialist nations to prevent misunderstanding.

  • December 17, 1963

    Record of the Second Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nasser

    Zhou and Nasser discuss developments in and relations with Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Yemen, and Mauritania, as well as the Non-Aligned Movement and the proposed second Asian-African Conference.