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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • May 18, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 18 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze notebook from May 18 of visit to China. Describes a dinner in Shanghai.

  • May 18, 1989

    Diary of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 18 May 1989

    Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze diary entry describing his time in Shanghai during negotiations to normalize Soviet-Chinese relations. Notes that Shanghai, like Beijing, "is in the power of the student strikers," and speculates that the student strike is "seemingly heated up by [the Soviet delegation's] visit."

  • May 19, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 19 May 1989

    Notes from Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, covering discussions between Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang, and Viktor Karpov. The Chinese side discusses Deng's role against the student unrest going on in China, and the punishment of protestors attempting to storm the building of the All Chinese Congress of People's Representatives.

  • May 22, 1989

    G. Berdennikov, 'Information on Agreement of the Draft CPSU Central Committee Resolution "On a Conception of Military Cooperation with (Non-Socialist) Foreign Countries"'

    List of CPSU Central Committee members approving the draft of a resolution "On a conception of military cooperation with (non-Socialist) foreign countries."

  • May 23, 1989

    Information Note of Romanian Embassy from Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Information Note of Romanian Embassy from Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the Chinese position on Gorbachev’s visit to China and the resumption of Sino-Soviet relations as indicative of future closer bilateral relations between the two countries

  • May 24, 1989

    Note on Meeting with Comrade Ri Jong-geun on 24 May 1989

    Ri Jong-geun requests that East Germany provide the DPRK with information of Korean nationals in the GDR.

  • May 31, 1989

    Bulgarian Politburo Decision on Appointment of New Bulgarian Ambassador to China

    This document records a decision of the Politburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party to appoint Philip Markov as the new Bulgarian ambassador to China.

  • June 05, 1989

    Transcript of the Central Committee Secretariat Meeting of the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR)

    On the day after Solidarity had swept Poland’s first open elections, ultimately winning 99 of 100 Senate seats, the Polish Communists vent their shock and dismay ("a bitter lesson," "the party are not connected with the masses," "We trusted the Church and they turned out to be Jesuits" were typical comments). Comrade Kwasniewski (who was later elected President of Poland) remarks that "It’s well known that also party members were crossing out our candidates" (only two out of 35 Party candidates survived the epidemic of X’s). But they see no choice but to negotiate a coalition government, and specifically "[w]arn against attempts at destabilization, pointing at the situation in China" -- since the Tiananmen massacre occurred the same day as the Polish elections, the road not taken.

  • June 06, 1989

    Bulgarian Politburo Discussion on Radio Free Europe Monitoring Reports (excerpt)

    This extract from a Politburo discussion indicates the attention paid to monitoring Western broadcasts for the top Party elite and Party leader Zhivkov’s impatience with the regime monitors’ focus on RFE broadcasts.

  • June 06, 1989

    Meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party

    Discussion of broadcasts of "Radio Free Europe" and other Western media on Bulgaria's policies towards the country's Turkish minority.

  • June 08, 1989

    Assessment Paper by the Austrian Foreign Ministry, '[Excerpt] Eastern Europe; Current Assessment'

    The paper addresses the change in economics, politics, and social structures in the Soviet bloc (Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the GDR) as a result of the USSR loosening up regulations.

  • June 09, 1989

    Records of the Talks between GDR Comrade Erich Honecker, and Member of the Politburo and Minister for Foreign Affairs the USSR, Eduard A. Shevardnadze

    GDR Chairman Honecker and Shevardnadze discuss the state of the German Democratic Republic and the CPSU's outlook on and relationship with East Germany, as well as both of their perspectives on the sociopolitical landscape in Poland, its recent election and the battle to maintain socialism in Poland.

  • June 10, 1989

    Secret Instructions by State Security (MfS) Chief Erich Mielke to Heads of all State Security Units

    In response to Western reports about the Tiananmen Square protests, Chief Erich Mielke alerts State Security to suppress all offensive anti-Chinese activity and propaganda in the GDR.

  • June 10, 1989

    Agreement about the Commencement of Substantial Political Negotiations between the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, the Members of the Opposition Roundtable and the Organizations of the Third Side

    The agreement was signed at the first plenary meeting of the National Roundtable talks. The document put on record the legal framework and the conditions of the subsequent tripartite negotiations which lasted until 18 September. At the next meeting, on 21 June, two intermediate-level committees were established for political and social-economic issues, each having six working subcommittees in which the bulk of the legal work leading to the establishment of parliamentary democracy in Hungary was carried out. Between March and June the crucial question of the transition was whether the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party [HSWP] was willing to eventually accept the fact that it would have to negotiate with a unified opposition represented by the Opposition Roundtable [ORT]. Although the HSWP leadership tried to do everything it could to prevent this, by the beginning of June it gave up its previous position. However, the opposition parties had to make a serious concession too, since it was a precondition of the HSWP in agreeing to start official negotiations on the political transition with the ORT that the talks should be tripartite. The “third side” included mass organizations and civil associations, all of which were supporters of the HSWP and/or represented left-wing political ideas.

  • June 12, 1989

    Record of the First Conversations Between Mikhail Gorbachev and FRG President Richard von Weizsäcker

    Gorbachev and Weizsäcker discuss Soviet-American relations and the Bush administration.

  • June 12, 1989

    Information on a Meeting of the Chairmen of the Regional Citizens’ Committees held in the Citizens’ Committee in Warsaw, at 6 Fredra St.,12 June 1989

    Chairmen of the fourty-six regional committees discuss the upcoming round of elections in Poland.

  • June 12, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and Chancellor of FRG H. Kohl

    Gorbachev and Kohl share their impressions of the newly elected George Bush and discuss events in Eastern Europe.

  • June 13, 1989

    Second Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and FRG Chancellor Helmut Kohl

    Discussion between Gorbachev and FRG Chancellor Kohl regarding arms control and the evolving diplomatic relationship between West Germany and the Soviet Union.

  • June 13, 1989

    Excerpts from the Opening Full Session of the Hungarian National Roundtable Negotiations

    Transcribed from previously unpublished video recordings, these discussions point to the unwritten "rules" of mutual civility that arose in the nonviolent dissident movements and found an echo among the Communist reformers during the negotiated revolutions of 1989. For example, Dr. Istvan Kukorelli from the Patriotic People’s Front proposes to "refrain from questioning the legitimacy of each other, since the legitimacy of all of us is debatable. It is a question which belongs to the future - who will be given credit by history and who will be forgotten."

  • June 14, 1989

    Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and FRG Chancellor Helmut Kohl

    Gorbachev and Kohl discuss relations with the United States, Kohl's upcoming visit to Poland, and the status of reforms in various socialist countries.