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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 28, 1988

    Jorge Risquet to Fidel Castro

    Jorge Risquet was Castro’s point man for Angola.

  • October 28, 1988

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Alexander Yakovlev

    Jorge Risquet was Castro’s point man for Angola; Alexander Yakovlev was a member of the Soviet Politburo and the Central Committee secretary in charge of foreign relations.

  • November 02, 1988

    Jorge Risquet to Fidel Castro

    Jorge Risquet was Castro’s point man for Angola.

  • December 17, 1988

    Memorandum of Conversation between Fidel Castro and José Eduardo dos Santos

    José Eduardo dos Santos was the president of Angola.

  • 1989

    Defense Intelligence Agency Briefing, 'The 1987-88 Combat in Southern Angola: Lessons Learned'

    Analysis of the military campaign waged in Southern Angola in 1987-88 as well as the lessons learned from this exchange. Document indicates that FAPLA failed to learn from its mistakes, while UNITA adapted much more effectively to the combat environment it faced in Angola. Although FAPLA managed to hold on to Cuito Cuanavale, its large losses led to a Cuban build-up in Southern Angola, which challenged the existing military balance in the region. This provided new impetus to peace negotiations and resulted in the December 1988 Accords among South Africa, Angola and Cuba.

  • January 31, 1989

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Alexander Yakovlev on 29 January 1989, enclosed in Risquet to Fidel Castro

    Jorge Risquet was Castro’s point man for Angola; Alexander Yakovlev was a member of the Soviet Politburo and the Central Committee secretary in charge of foreign relations.

  • February 07, 1989

    Record from Protocol No. 147 of the Meeting of the Politburo of the CC CPSU, Supplying Arms to Angola

    In response to requests from the President of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, the CC CPSU agrees to supply arms which will be sent from the Soviet Union to the Republic of Cuba, and then provided during the withdrawal of Cuban troops from the People’s Republic of Angola.

  • 1998

    Interview with Robert W. Hultslander, Last CIA Station Chief in Luanda, Angola

    CIA station chief in Luanda, Hultslander gives his perspective on the US involvement in Angola. In his interview he explains what the US knew about liberation movements prior to the outbreak of Civil War, his opinion on the CIA covert action program IAFEATURE, the Cuban presence in Angola and his assessment of the leading factions in Angola; MPLA, UNITA and FNLA.

  • 2001

    Anatoly Adamishin, 'The White Sun of Angola' (excerpts)

    Anatoly Adamishin explains the crucial role that Cubans played in the Angolan conflict. Through large scale Cuban involvement, the cost for South Africa to continue its involvement in the conflict became too high and led to peace talks. However, the author still underlines the fact that it was Soviet arms that the Cubans were using in their fighting.