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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June, 1977

    Military Exercise VAL-77 Explanatory note to the concept of the operational-tactical exercise of allied fleets in the Baltic Sea, codenamed VAL-77

    This document provides an overview of the VAL-77 Warsaw Pact military exercise. Conducted in June and July 1977, the exercise simulated a joint seizure of the Baltic Straits region in order to provide practical operational experience and to improve coordination between ground, naval, and air forces. The exercise is predicated on a hypothetical scenario in which the "Westerners" initiate hostilities toward the "Easterners," prompting the Warsaw Pact allies to respond with force.

  • June 28, 1977

    Fala-77 Military Exercise Maritime Front Reconnaissance Plan for an Amphibious Assault Operation

    This document summarizes the objectives of a 1977 Warsaw Pact reconnaissance military exercise intended to gather information about enemy defensive capabilities on the islands off the coast of Denmark and Norway, particularly Zealand.

  • June 28, 1977

    Military Exercise Memorandum regarding the reconnaissance plan of the Maritime Front staff

    This document provides information on the reconnaissance capabilities of the Polish Maritime Front in the case that Eastern forces engage in combat in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

  • December 01, 1977

    Agreement between the Soviet KGB and Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior from the summer of 1978 to 1980

    In order to combat the perceived threat of hostile, foreign special agents operating on Soviet and Czechoslovak territory, the two parties agree to centralize their efforts to ensure the security of the two countries. In order to counter the special agents of capitalist countries and preserve the security of state secrets, the two parties decide to exchange counter-intelligence activity on subversive activity in Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and other socialist states. The two parties agree to focus on citizens of capitalist countries such as the United States, England, France and other NATO member nations and citizens of the People's Republic of China and the German Democratic Republic in their intelligence efforts. Specifically, the parties agree to monitor citizens of these countries working in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union and people working for representative agencies of the aforementioned countries. Also being monitored are Czechoslovak and Soviet citizens returning from capitalist or developing countries, corresponding with people in capitalist countries and having an address in a capitalist country. In conclusion, the KGB and Czechoslovak Interior Ministry agree to regular, bilateral exchange of information on hostile residents of both countries who are thought to be in the employ of the special intelligence services of NATO countries and China.

  • December 05, 1977

    Cooperation agreement between the state security schools of the Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

    The two schools agree to bilateral consultations regarding training content and internships for cadets and to share teaching materials, teachers, recorded lectures and film. Both educational institutions pledge to work together to determine a common plan for each school year. This agreement also mentions the Soviet Red Banner distinction.

  • February 22, 1978

    Agreement between the Soviet and Czechoslovak Interior Ministries for the year 1978

    The two parties agree to worker exchanges in the areas including scientific information, and computational processing. Details on sending Czechoslovak workers and state security school students to various state schools in the Soviet Union to study politics, foreign policy, fire-fighting techniques, engineering, criminal investigation and the Soviet. The criminology departments of the two ministries pledge to exchange tactics, methods and expertise. Officials of the two ministries agree to exchange information on the gravest problems in their country every six months.

  • October 27, 1978

    Conspect of Conversations with V. I. Potapov, Chief of Romanian Sector of CPSU CC Section

    V.I Potapov informs about a visit to Bucharest of the CPSU delegation led by A. A. Gromyko and the discussions regarding the “Bessarabian question,” criticism of the CPSU regarding RSR’s relations with the USA and NATO and independent relations with China, RSR’s distancing from the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries in terms of foreign policy.

  • November 22, 1978

    Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty Member Countries

    Meeting minutes taken by Romanian Ambassador Vasile Sandru at sessions of the Warsaw Treaty Political Consultative Committee, taking place in Moscow on 22-23 November 1978. Session I contains a speech by Leonid Brezhnev in which he discusses détente, Warsaw Pact economic cooperation, disarmament, national liberation movements, and relations with China, the Western countries, and Japan. In Session II and III political leaders of the other Warsaw member countries respond to Brezhnev’s speech. Session IV features a report by Commander-in-Chief Viktor Kulikov on the United Armed Forces. He recommends an increase in military expenditures. All of the leaders agree, except for Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania.

  • December 14, 1978

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'The autumn sessions of NATO Ministers of Defense meetings (Eurogroup: 4th December; DPC 5th-6th December 1978)'

    The 1978 fall sessions of the Eurogroup and the Defense Planning Committee discussed the Alliance's reaction to new nuclear capabilities of the Soviet Union and conventional build up of the Warsaw Pact. Even though the NATO states acknowledge that the Soviet Union will not be able to maintain its current efforts due to its economic problems, 1980s are seen as posing risks to the current peace.

  • March 22, 1979

    Protocol on cooperation between the Interior Ministries of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union for the year 1979

    The two parties agree to worker, including Interior Ministry officials and university students, exchanges in the field of academia, law, politics, criminal investigation, fire-fighting, engineering, external relations, science and public safety. Provisions are made of the exchange of documents relating to criminology, public safety, the Soviet military, politics and fire-fighting techniques. Both parties agree to exchange information on thefts of shipments, detection and prevention of anti-state activity in border regions and the protection of public order.

  • August 20, 1979

    Information Regarding the Meeting and Conversation in the Crimea of L. I. Brezhnev with N. Ceausescu, on 1 August 1979

    V.I Potapov informs on the discussion between Brezhnev and Ceausescu in Crimea in 1979. The Soviets are worried about the separate course followed by the RCP leadership with regards to domestic and international issues. Topics involve the Soviet criticism of the publications of the SRR regarding the Moldavian “territorial question”, the attitude of the Romanian leaders towards the Warsaw Treaty Organization, and towards the Chinese problem.

  • November 12, 1979

    Military Exercise Plan for Operational Assembly of the Baltic Sea Command (January 1980)

    This document describes a pending joint military exercise between Warsaw Pact members. The exercise has three stated purposes: to gain experience in conducting airborne-amphibious assaults; to improve techniques of collaboration between allied commanders; and to foster friendship and cohesion among the allied troops. Included in the document are tables detailing the exercise event schedule.

  • 1980

    Military Exercise Appendix No. 8: Combat Ready Men and Equipment of the Warsaw Pact Countries' Air Defense in the Maritime Sector

    This document details the composition of Warsaw Pact air forces.

  • 1980

    Military Exercise Report of the Decision of the Commander of the Maritime Front for an Offensive Operation

    A note to the Chief of Staff of the GDR People's Navy, this document assesses the enemy position and military capabilities in the Baltic Sea, the Jutland Peninsula, and the North Sea. The document notes that the NATO forces are capable of delivering nuclear weapons. The stated objective of the exercise is to remove the enemy's nuclear weapons capabilities, to defeat enemy forces defending the Jutland Peninsula, and thereby to create conditions under which Warsaw Pact forces may then reach the North Sea.

  • January 10, 1980

    Military Exercise Operational Task for a Command-Staff Map Exercise

    This document describes a theoretical military confrontation in which "Western" NATO forces declare war on the "Eastern" Warsaw forces. The document details the capabilities of the NATO forces on land and at sea.

  • January 14, 1980

    Military Exercise Combat Instruction No. 12/1 of the OBF

    This document describes joint naval exercises to be conducted in the Baltic Sea.

  • January 16, 1980

    Military Exercise Composition of the Assault Landing Formations

    This document details the composition of Warsaw Pact armed forces.

  • January 16, 1980

    Military Exercise Operational Directive of the Commander of the OBF

    This document evaluates the strength of NATO forces in the Baltic Sea and provides instructions for forthcoming naval exercises to win control of the southern part of the Baltic Sea, to conduct an amphibious assault, and to win control of the eastern part of the North Sea.

  • January 20, 1980

    Military Exercise Order of Battle of the 2nd Fleet (Polish Navy)

    This document details the types and current statuses of ships under command of the Warsaw Pact.

  • January 20, 1980

    Military Exercise Appendix No. 17: NATO Order of Battle in the Western Theater of Military Operations

    This document details the composition of NATO military forces by country and by class.