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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 25, 1953

    Draft Instructions to Chuikov and Semyonov

    In March 1953, Moscow had declined Ulbricht’s request for tightening up the sector border in Berlin, then the major loophole in the SED leadership’s efforts to seal off East Germany. In the aftermath of the demonstrations and unrest in Berlin, the SED leadership apparently tried to reintroduce the idea of increased “border security” in Berlin. Eager to salvage whatever was left of its political position as a champion of German unity, Moscow again held such measures as politically “disadvantageous” and “unacceptable.” Certainly, the Kremlin was also aware of the continued widespread resentment among the Berlin and GDR population which made any more restrictive measures a risky undertaking. Instead, the Soviets urged the SED to increase its “fight against hostile elements” in West Berlin—an issue that would become more and more the focus of Soviet attitude on Berlin.

  • October 16, 1953

    CIA Information Report, 'Estimated Damage as a Result of the June 16/17 Mass Demonstrations'

    A CIA report presents an assessment of the damages and monetary value of the damages following the East German Uprising, estimated by East German governmental offices.

  • November 16, 1953

    Fomenting Unrest in the Communist World

    C.D. Jackson, now assistant to President Eisenhower, urges CIA director Allen Dulles to make contingency plans to exploit future unrest in the Communist world during a perceived “Winter of Discontent.”

  • January 19, 1954

    Central Intelligence Agency, NIE 12.4-54, Probable Developments in Eastern Germany Through 1955

    Estimating the current situation and probable developments in East Germany through 1955.

  • June 16, 1954

    State Department Reservations about Free Europe Committee Policy

    State Department official Lampton Berry conveys to Thomas Braden reservations about FEC Special Policy Guidance No. 19 [available in the Hoover Archives] that emphasized weakened Soviet control in Eastern Europe.

  • December 31, 1954

    Report on the Specialists returning from the Soviet Union

    Report on the return of German scientists from the Soviet Union. The report informs the SED leadership which of the German scientists desire to return to the West and which will stay in the East. The report also discusses the political atitudes of the scientists. It makes suggestions as to ways to secure their cooperation with the East German government.

  • March 16, 1955

    Record of 'A Chat with K. M. Panikkar at the Quai D’Orsay'

    A representative of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports on his conversation with former Indian Ambassador K.M. Panikkar. Panikkar avowed that the Indian government firmly believes that Germany will eventually reunify, while it increasingly fears that Germany will unify by means of war, which would threaten India's own future development. Panikkar suggests that Nehru may discuss this issue in his upcoming meeting with Khrushchev.

  • March 25, 1955

    F. Zeiler to SED First Secretary Walter Ulbricht, 'Return of the German Specialists from the Soviet Union'

    Report for Walter Ulbricht on the return of German Specialists from the Soviet Union. The report informs Ulbricht of conversations with returning German scientists on their future plans in East Germany.

  • March 26, 1955

    Statement by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the Transfer of the 72nd Engineer Brigade to East Germany

    Transfer of Soviet troops and missiles to various Eastern European countries.

  • May 14, 1955

    Warsaw Pact Treaty

    Treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of West Germany into NATO.

  • October 13, 1955

    CC BCP Politburo Resolution "B" Protocol for Cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Stasi

    The CC BCP Politburo approves the protocol for cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi), agreed upon at a September meeting in Berlin.

  • December 10, 1955

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK V. I. Ivanov for 10 December 1955

    Nam Il explains that the shortcomings and mistakes of a few individual Soviet Korean party members have aroused hostile sentiments against Soviet Koreans as an entire group.

  • December 23, 1955

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK V. I. Ivanov for 23 December 1955

    Ivanov meets with GDR Ambassador Richard Fischer, who reports although GDR Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl and Kim Il Sung have spoken about strengthening GDR-DPRK relations, East Germany is currently unable to supply further material aid to the DPRK.

  • June 05, 1956

    Memorandum of Conversation with Pak Ui-wan

    Ambassador Ianov discusses with Vice Premier and Minister of Light Industry Pak Ui-wan on his hope that Kim Il Sung's trip to the GDR would bring changes in North Korean economic policy.

  • June 12, 1956

    Protocol No. 27/56 of the Extraordinary Meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee on 12 June 1956 between 0900 and 1000 hours in the Central House of Unity

    GDR decides what aid it will give the North Korea and which credits and technical devices they will offer until 1960.

  • October 30, 1956

    Working Notes from the Session of the CPSU CC Presidium on 30 October 1956

    The Presidium decides to promulgate a declaration on Hungary in which Soviet withdrawal and relations with the new government will be addressed. Members discuss the language of the new declaration and the advice of the CPC CC regarding the status of Soviet troops. The declaration is also intended to address the broader crisis in Soviet relations with people’s democracies.

  • April 15, 1957

    Memorandum of Conversation with East German Ambassador Fr. Everhartze

    Meeting with East German Ambassador Everhartze concerning the recently concluded Chinese-Polish negotiations and the recent 1956 uprisings in Poland. The main purpose of the visit was to find out about the future visit ofZhou Enlai to Czechoslovakia, because the GDR has also invited Zhou Enlai to a state visit.

  • May 25, 1957

    Collection of Reports from Polish Military Attaches Around the World

    Reports from Washington, Ottawa, Cairo, Berlin, Brussells, Rome, Stockholm, and Helsinki discussing events that occurred from January-May 1957. Most of the contents revolved around meetings with other foreign officials and actions of embassy's host country.

  • May 31, 1957

    Department of State Office of Intelligence Research, 'OIR Contribution to NIE 100-6-57: Nuclear Weapons Production by Fourth Countries – Likelihood and Consequences'

    This lengthy report was State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research's contribution to the first National Intelligence Estimate on the nuclear proliferation, NIE 100-6-57. Written at a time when the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom were the only nuclear weapons states, the “Fourth Country” problem referred to the probability that some unspecified country, whether France or China, was likely to be the next nuclear weapons state. Enclosed with letter from Helmut Sonnenfeldt, Division of Research for USSR and Western Europe, to Roger Mateson, 4 June 1957, Secret

  • June 24, 1957

    Minutes of the Meeting of the CPSU CC Plenum on the State of Soviet Foreign Policy

    The Soviet leadership discusses the state of Soviet foreign policy after the Hungarian crisis and Khrushchev’s visit to the US. Molotov criticizes Khrushchev for recklessness in foreign policy direction. Soviet inroads in the Middle East and the Third World are analyzed. The effects of the crises in Eastern Europe are placed in the context of the struggle against US imperialism.