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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • December 08, 1964

    US Comments on the UK Proposal of a Project for an Atlantic Nuclear Force

    General comments relating to the establishment of an Atlantic nuclear force, objectives that any new arrangement of NATO nuclear forces must meet, specific comments on the UK's proposal, characteristics of the force, components, contribution of the United States Forces, non-dissemination of nuclear weapons, command and voting arrangements, review provisions.

  • January 10, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Origins and evolution of the project to establish a multilateral nuclear force'

    The note describes the story of the project to establish a multilateral nuclear force within NATO, from the origins up to the current situation.

  • March 03, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Forces'

    The document reports some considerations of MAE with regards to the current situation of Atlantic nuclear forces and possible future developments.

  • March 10, 1965

    Note by Head of MD Cabinet on British Project

    Analysis of British ANF proposal and military considerations regarding defense of the European operational theater. The paper stresses that the proposal overlooks the issue, as it advances the idea of a strategic nuclear force external to Europe. Finally, it outlines criteria for organizing an Atlantic nuclear force which might better fit european military problems.

  • March 12, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini

    The report examines the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance and the uncertainty of the current phase, which consists of forces not always appropriate to its cohesion. Alessandrini analyzes both the transformations in the international context and those inside NATO, the issue of political, economic and military consultation, the debate about the multilateral force and ANF. The conclusion underlines - despite all the current problems - the positive results of the history of NATO, an alliance that represents to date not only the deterrence against possible Soviet threats, but also the most important interlocutor in an eventual East-West dialogue.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Nuclear Problems'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to nuclear problems, the document hopes for a gradual way out from NATO's current paralysis, through a process of integration, rather then the attempt to solve also these problems by mere coordination among the Allies.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Defense Planning'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to the Defense Planning, Italy claims (together with Germany) that it is absolutely indispensable to have available a well-balanced both conventional and nuclear arsenal, to preserve the SACEUR's credibility, on a political level too.

  • May 31, 1965

    Draft Telegram to Italian Embassies and Permanent Representative to NATO

    The telegram announces that the Italian government welcomes MacNamara's proposal of establishing a restricted Atlantic Nuclear Committee. This proposal is in the context of a necessary widening of the Atlantic nuclear responsibilities that now are concentrated in Washington.

  • June 02, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Committee'

    The note describes the proposal made by MacNamara as the most recent element of the US political-strategic thinking. The document explains MacNamara's proposal from its origins to the current situation. The document analyzes the position of various countries, with a focus on the Italian one and some points which still need to be sorted out. Italy seems interested in participating in the proposed Committee.

  • June 10, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Fanfani; forwarded to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    The report concerns the meeting of Ministers of Defense - recently held in Paris - and the various topics addressed within (strategy of defense, long-term planning, "selected committee").

  • August 03, 1965

    Memo on Work of the Committee of the 18 on Nuclear Proliferation

    Memo by CSMD A. Rossi on the resumption of the work of the Committee of the 18 in Geneva and the issue of non-dissemination nuclear weapons: summary of technical-military observations from SMD to MD of March 1964 on US proposal for declaration on non-dissemination, analysis on nuclear power guidelines and Non-nuclear countries; draft British and Canadian agreements presented to the Atlantic Council and reactions to alliance countries, statement Foreign Minister A. Fanfani to Geneva; US project of nuclear non-dissemination treaty, MAE instructions to amb. Cavalletti

  • August 07, 1965

    MD Note on US and UK positions on MLF

    Note on MLF project elaborated by Paris standing group. It focuses on US project, British point of view, objectives of te ANF proposal, issues with the MLF and national ways to the nuclear deterrent.

  • October 13, 1965

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special committee proposed by MacNamara'

    The note is about MacNamara's proposal to establish a Special Committee in order to broaden Allies' participation in the strategic planning of US nuclear deterrent and to reach a more efficient process of political consultation. The document outlines some points related to Italy's position.

  • November 22, 1965

    Message by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee meeting, 27th November - Conversation with Cleveland '

    Alessandrini reports a personal conversation with Cleveland, concerning the forthcoming meeting of the Committee of Ministers of Defense of the Alliance, recently proposed by MacNamara. Italy's position should be considered positively because it seems flexible and well-balanced.

  • November 23, 1965

    Appunto CSMD US Nuclear Weapons Storing in Italy

    Summary by CSMD Aldo Rossi on US-Italy agreements for the storage of nuclear weapons assigned to NATO italian units.

  • November 25, 1965

    Note on FRG and MLF

    Summary of FRG Foreign Minister Gerhard Schroeder's meetings in London on question of command and control of atlantic nuclear force.

  • December 01, 1965

    Note from CSMD a MD for High Defense Committee Meeting

    Note by CSMD Aldo Rossi for High Defense Committee Meeting on MLF and ANF projects.

  • December 01, 1965

    Report, 'Use of nuclear weapons'

    The document is a detailed analysis about the possible use of NATO's nuclear weapons, in preparation for the Atlantic Council's December session. The French participation in the Council and the French opposition to any nuclear integration will probably leave this issue without a solution. From their point of view, the US and the Select Committee recently proposed by them should try to overcome the hindrance represented by France, at the same time without jeopardizing the cohesion of the Alliance.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'

    The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'Special Committee. Working group for the planning'

    The note outlines the Italian policy with regards to the activities of the Working group on planning, of which Italy is a part together with the US, the UK, Germany and Turkey.