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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the student strike situation.

  • November 21, 1989

    Letter from NATO Deputy General Secretary Marcello Guidi to Minister Gianni De Michelis

    The letter addresses developments in the relationship between the two German states and the prospect of reunification. It describes the political climate in West Germany towards reunification as hesitant, if not reluctant, and voices concerns over the destabilizing potential of such efforts.

  • November 21, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Opposition Gains Strength

    An analysis of the political climate in Czechoslovakia and the rise of the opposition.

  • November 21, 1989

    Teleprint from the Presidium of the CC CPS to the Secretaries of Regional Committees of the CPCz [and] CPS and the Party Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    The Presidium reports recent anti-socialist disturbances in Prague, with the organizers allegedly influencing and manipulating the public, especially targeting students. It is emphasized that the CPCz and CPS must maintain order, and affirm the socialist position through media outlets.

  • November 21, 1989

    Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney.

    Gorbachev and Mulroney discuss US interference in Eastern Europe and increasing cooperation with Western Europe. They also briefly discuss George Bush's leadership.

  • November 23, 1989

    Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague

    The Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague calling for a general strike

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint, 'Summary of the Demands Made by Opposition Groups Represented by the Civic Forum'

    The demands for reform by the Civic Forum and the anti-communism movement in Czechoslovakia are outlined, in regards to the legal system, political system, economy, and a general re-structuring of power. The general decline in support of the CPCz and growth of support for opposition groups is apparent.

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint from Jozef Lenárt, Secretary of CC CPS, to Regional Committees and Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    Lenart presents information on an upcoming strike, planned by a now-unified organization of protesters called the Civic Forum. He reports the demands of the Civic Forum, explicated in their proclamation.

  • November 24, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Opposition Grows Daily

    An analysis of the opposition's continued growth and potential Party responses.

  • November 24, 1989

    Draft Thesis of the Program of the Civic Forum, Prague

    Draft thesis of the program of the civic forum, Prague advocating a market economy to help remedy the ‘vassal’ system of the Communist Party and the crisis facing Czechoslovakia

  • November 24, 1989

    Speech by Premier Ladislav Adamec at the Extraordinary Session of the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee

    This transcript shows the Czech party elites choosing against violent repression of the mass protests in Wenceslas Square. More clearly than in almost any other Party document, the reasons for nonviolence are spelled out: such a solution would only temporarily "return calm," it would radicalize the youth, "the international support of the socialist countries can no longer be counted on," and "the capitalist states" might react with a "political and economic boycott."

  • November 24, 1989

    Memorandum of Conversation Austrian Chancellor Franz Vranitzky and East German Prime Minister Hans Modrow, East-Berlin

    The conversation details various changes needed in the GDR, including within the economy, electoral law, and foreign relations. They further discuss Austria's role in the two German states.

  • November 24, 1989

    Information by the East German Office of National Security on the Austrian Assessment of the Situation in the GDR and the Development of Austrian–East German Relations, Berlin (East)

    The document recounts the discussion between party officials from Austria's People's Party and Socialist Party in regards to changing developments in East and West Germany. Based on historical, political, and economic precedent, the overwhelming sentiment is against reunification. However, due to the rapidness of political events in the GDR the Socialist Party had yet to decide how to react. The parties then outline a plan to establish connections from both East and West German leadership as well as resistance movements in Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia.

  • November 26, 1989

    List of Goals by the Civic Forum, 26 November 1989

    The Civic Forum, the organizing voice for Czech opposition groups during the Velvet Revolution, outlines their goals for a future Czechoslovak Republic. This includes new program goals including individual rights, the political system, foreign policy, national economy, social justice, the environment, and culture.

  • November 27, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Party Under the Gun

    An analysis of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and its decision to add seven new Presidium members.

  • November 27, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Sweeping Leadership Changes

    An analysis of the Czechoslovak Communist Party's responses to public demands by adding new members to the Presidium.

  • November 27, 1989

    Romania: Party Congress Underscores Ceausescu's Isolation

    An analysis of Ceausescu's unanimous victory in the Party Congress.

  • November 27, 1989

    Western Ukraine: Drive for Independence

    An analysis of independence movements in Western Ukraine and the role of the Ukrainian Catholic Church.

  • November 27, 1989

    Special Analysis: USSR: Ukrainian Politics Come Alive

    An analysis of Ukraine's popular front, Rukh, and its potential effects on Communist rule in.

  • November 28, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 219, Embassy of Hungary in Pakistan to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on India's response to Pakistan's purchase of a nuclear reactor from China.